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Estimating the variability in fraction absorbed as a paradigm for informing formulation development in early clinical drug development.

Rabbie, SC; Martin, PD; Flanagan, T; Basit, AW; Standing, JF; (2016) Estimating the variability in fraction absorbed as a paradigm for informing formulation development in early clinical drug development. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 89 pp. 50-60. 10.1016/j.ejps.2016.04.005. Green open access

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Abstract

PURPOSE: Inter-subject variability in oral drug absorption is usually reported using bioavailability, which has the components: fraction absorbed (fa), fraction passing the gut wall (fg) and fraction escaping hepatic metabolism (fh). In this study, we sought to separate the absorption (fa∗fg) and elimination (fh) components of bioavailability to study variability of absorption and to investigate the effect of formulations, gastric pH and food on absorption variability. METHODS: Four compounds from the AstraZeneca database with a range of reported bioavailabilities (high, intermediate 1&2 and low) were selected. First, a disposition model using intravenous data was developed; Second, intrinsic clearance and hence hepatic extraction ratio was estimated based on the "well stirred" model; lastly, the oral data were included to enable estimation of fa∗fg as a separate component to hepatic extraction. Population pharmacokinetic model fitting was undertaken with NONMEM v.7.2. RESULTS: The limiting step in absorption for intermediate 1 was dissolution rate and fa∗fg variability increased under elevated gastric pH (15% vs. 38%, respectively). Absorption of solution formulation intermediate 2 increased by 17% in the presence of food but the prolonged release formulation's absorption didn't differ under fasted or fed state. Variability wasn't affected by food for both formulations (~30%). For the low bioavailable compound, variability decreased when formulated as a prolonged-release formulation (39% vs. 15%). CONCLUSIONS: The method described here enables an exploration of drug absorption inter-subject variability using population pharmacokinetics. Implementation of such an approach may aid the formulation design process through a better understanding of the factors affecting oral drug absorption variability.

Type: Article
Title: Estimating the variability in fraction absorbed as a paradigm for informing formulation development in early clinical drug development.
Location: Netherlands
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2016.04.005
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2016.04.005
Language: English
Additional information: © 2016. This manuscript version is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Non-derivative 4.0 International licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This licence allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work for personal and non-commercial use providing author and publisher attribution is clearly stated. Further details about CC BY licences are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0. Access may be initially restricted by the publisher.
Keywords: Absorption, Bioavailability, Food effect, Formulation, Inter-subject variability
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Pharmaceutics
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1488805
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