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Travel Mode Choice Prediction Using Imbalanced Machine Learning

Chen, H; Cheng, Y; (2023) Travel Mode Choice Prediction Using Imbalanced Machine Learning. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 10.1109/TITS.2023.3237681. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Travel mode choice prediction is critical for travel demand prediction, which influences transport resource allocation and transport policies. Travel modes are often characterised by severe class imbalance and inequality, which leads to the inferior predictive performance of minority modes and bias in travel demand prediction. In existing studies, the class imbalance in travel mode prediction has not been addressed with a general approach. Basic resampling methods were adopted without much investigation, and the performance was assessed by commonly used metrics (e.g., accuracy), which is not suitable for predicting highly imbalanced modes. To this end, this paper proposes an evaluation framework to systematically investigate the combination of six over/undersampling techniques and three prediction methods. In a case study using the London Passenger Mode Choice dataset, results show that applying over/undersampling techniques on travel mode substantially improves the F1 score (i.e., the harmonic mean of precision and recall) of minority classes, without considerably downgrading the overall prediction performance or model interpretation. These findings suggest that combining over/undersampling techniques and statistical/machine-learning methods is appropriate for predicting travel mode, which effectively mitigates the influence of class imbalance while achieving high predictive accuracy and model interpretation. In addition, the combination of over/undersampling techniques and prediction methods enriches the model options for predicting mode choice, which would better support transport planning.

Type: Article
Title: Travel Mode Choice Prediction Using Imbalanced Machine Learning
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1109/TITS.2023.3237681
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1109/TITS.2023.3237681
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: Class imbalance, machine learning, oversampling, undersampling, travel mode choice
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of the Built Environment
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of the Built Environment > Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10166576
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