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Impact of sub-optimal HIV viral control on activated T cells

Arrigoni, Francesca IF; Spyer, Moira; Hunter, Patricia; Alber, Dagmar; Kityo, Cissy; Hakim, James; Matubu, Allen; ... EARNEST trial team; + view all (2023) Impact of sub-optimal HIV viral control on activated T cells. AIDS , 37 (6) pp. 913-923. 10.1097/QAD.0000000000003488. Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: HIV viral load (VL) monitoring is generally conducted 6-12 monthly in low- and middle-income countries, risking relatively prolonged periods of poor viral control. We explored the effects of different levels of loss of viral control on immune reconstitution and activation. DESIGN: : 208 participants starting Protease Inhibitor (PI)-based second-line therapy in the EARNEST trial (ISRCTN37737787) in Uganda and Zimbabwe were enrolled and CD38+/HLA-DR+ immunophenotyping performed (CD8-FITC/CD38-PE/CD3-PerCP/HLA-DR-APC; centrally gated) in real-time at 0, 12, 48, 96 and 144 weeks from randomisation. METHODS: Viral Load (Viral load (VL) was assayed retrospectively on samples collected every 12-16 weeks and classified as (1) continuous suppression (<40 copies/ml throughout); (2) suppression with transient blips; (3) low-level rebound (two or more consecutive VL >40, <5000 copies/ml); (4) high-level rebound/non-response (two or more consecutive VL >5000 copies/ml). RESULTS: Immunophenotype reconstitution varied between that defined by numbers of cells and that defined by cell percentages. Furthermore, VL dynamics were associated with substantial differences in expression of CD4+ and CD8+ cell activation markers, with only individuals with high-level rebound/non-response (>5000 copies/ml) experiencing significantly greater activation and impaired reconstitution. There was little difference between participants who suppressed consistently and who exhibited transient blips or even low-level rebound by 144 weeks (p > 0.2 vs suppressed consistently). CONCLUSION: Detectable viral load below the threshold at which WHO guidelines recommend that treatment can be maintained without switching (1000 copies/ml) appear to have at most, small effects on reconstitution and activation, for patients taking a PI-based second-line regimen.

Type: Article
Title: Impact of sub-optimal HIV viral control on activated T cells
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000003488
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000003488
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: HIV-1; antiretroviral therapy; lymphocyte activation; viral load; immune reconstitution; immunophenotyping
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology > MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10164576
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