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Black sand and iron stone: iron smelting in Modakeke, Ife, south western Nigeria

Ige, A; Rehren, T; (2003) Black sand and iron stone: iron smelting in Modakeke, Ife, south western Nigeria. Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies , 23 pp. 15-20. Green open access

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Abstract

Fourteen fayalitic bloomery slags, possible ore and furnace wall samples from an ancient smelting site in southwestern Nigeria were analysed by chemical and mineralogical techniques. They derive from a skillful bloomery smelting operation extracting the maximum possible amount of iron from the ore. For most of the slags the analyses show an exceptionally rich level of titanium oxide (up to around ten wt%), indicating the use of a mixed ore comprising limonite iron stone and ilmenit-rich black sand. Some of the slags were tapped, while others may have solidified within the cooling furnace, as indicated by their morphology and mineralogical texture

Type: Article
Title: Black sand and iron stone: iron smelting in Modakeke, Ife, south western Nigeria
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Publisher version: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/iams/newsletter
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the version of record delete as appropriate]. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: archaeometallurgy, black, Iron, Nigeria
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Institute of Archaeology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Institute of Archaeology > Institute of Archaeology Gordon Square
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/93632
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