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Bronze metallurgy in the Late Phrygian settlement of Gordion, Turkey

Rademakers, FW; Rehren, T; Voigt, MM; (2018) Bronze metallurgy in the Late Phrygian settlement of Gordion, Turkey. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences , 10 pp. 1645-1672. 10.1007/s12520-017-0475-8. Green open access

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Abstract

A detailed understanding of bronze production remains absent in most archaeological contexts, despite the fundamental importance of this alloy. Here, we present a comprehensive discussion of the bronze production remains from Late Phrygian/Achaemenid Gordion: crucibles, moulds and casting waste and their find contexts. A detailed microscopic analysis of crucibles is complemented by chemical characterisation of their main materials (ceramic and slag) in order to discuss the technical performance of the crucibles and to evaluate the materials used for the metallurgical process. Given the lack of contemporary parallels, repeated reference is made to the Egyptian crucibles from Pi-Ramesse, for which similarly detailed descriptions are available. The crucible analyses are then connected to the other production remains to obtain a more holistic understanding of the metallurgical process. Finally, these technical observations are interpreted in their particular archaeological context at Gordion and discussed from a wider perspective. The results presented here offer the first detailed overview of bronze production for ancient Phrygia, as well as the wider region. Through the inclusion of extensive online supplementary data, this paper offers a detailed technical overview of ancient (bronze) crucible analysis, of which very few examples are currently available in the wider literature.

Type: Article
Title: Bronze metallurgy in the Late Phrygian settlement of Gordion, Turkey
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s12520-017-0475-8
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-017-0475-8
Language: English
Additional information: © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017. This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Phrygia; Achaemenid; Bronze metallurgy Crucible analysis; Moulds
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Institute of Archaeology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Institute of Archaeology > Institute of Archaeology Gordon Square
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1549699
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