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Learning disabilities among extremely preterm children without neurosensory impairment: Comorbidity, neuropsychological profiles and scholastic outcomes

Johnson, S; Strauss, V; Gilmore, C; Jaekel, J; Marlow, N; Wolke, D; (2016) Learning disabilities among extremely preterm children without neurosensory impairment: Comorbidity, neuropsychological profiles and scholastic outcomes. Early Human Development , 103 pp. 69-75. 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.07.009. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Children born extremely preterm are at high risk for intellectual disability, learning disabilities, executive dysfunction and special educational needs, but little is understood about the comorbidity of intellectual and learning disabilities in this population. AIMS: This study explored comorbidity in intellectual disability (ID) and learning disabilities (LD) in children born extremely preterm (EP; <26(+0)weeks' gestation). SUBJECTS AND STUDY DESIGN: A UK national cohort of 161 EP children and 153 term-born controls without neurosensory impairments was assessed at 11years of age (the EPICure Study). OUTCOME MEASURES: IQ, mathematics and reading attainment, executive function, visuospatial processing and sensorimotor skills were assessed using standardised tests, and curriculum-based attainment and special educational needs (SEN) using teacher reports. RESULTS: Overall, 75 (47%) EP children and 7 (4.6%) controls had ID or LD (RR 10.12; 95% CI 4.81, 21.27). Comorbidity in ID/LD was more common among EP children than controls (24% vs. 0%). EP children with comorbid ID/LD had significantly poorer neuropsychological abilities and curriculum-based attainment than EP children with an isolated disability or no disabilities. LD were associated with a 3 times increased risk for SEN. However, EP children with ID alone had poorer neuropsychological abilities and curriculum-based attainment than children with no disabilities, yet there was no increase in SEN provision among this group. CONCLUSIONS: EP children are at high risk for comorbid intellectual and learning disabilities. Education professionals should be aware of the complex nature of EP children's difficulties and the need for multi-domain assessments to guide intervention.

Type: Article
Title: Learning disabilities among extremely preterm children without neurosensory impairment: Comorbidity, neuropsychological profiles and scholastic outcomes
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.07.009
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.07.009
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2016. This manuscript version is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Non-derivative 4.0 International licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This licence allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work for personal and non-commercial use providing author and publisher attribution is clearly stated. Further details about CC BY licences are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0.
Keywords: Academic attainment, Extremely preterm, Learning disabilities, Mathematics, Reading, Special educational needs
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health > Neonatology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1508869
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