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A simple and mild chemical oxidation route to high-purity nano-graphene oxide

Rosillo-Lopez, M; Salzmann, CG; (2016) A simple and mild chemical oxidation route to high-purity nano-graphene oxide. Carbon , 106 pp. 56-63. 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.022. Green open access

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Abstract

Nano-graphene oxide (nGO) is used in a wide range of applications including cellular imaging, drug delivery, desalination and energy storage. Current preparation protocols are similar as for standard graphene oxide (GO) and typically rely on mixtures of sulfuric acid and potassium permanganate. We present a new route to nGO (∼30 nm diameter) using a quite defective arc-discharge carbon source and only 9 M nitric acid as the oxidising agent. The preparation can be scaled up proportionately with current GO protocols with 50 mL of half-concentrated nitric acid able to process one gram of arc-discharge material. The workup is straight forward and involves neutralization with sodium hydroxide which precipitates the sodium salt of nGO from solution. The only by-product of the new procedure is aqueous sodium nitrate which makes this protocol the cleanest route yet to nGO. The presence and quantities of functional groups in our nGO are determined and compared with standard GO. We anticipate that this new route to nGO will foster a range of new applications. The presence of highly reactive carboxylic anhydride groups on our nGO material in particular offers an excellent opportunity for purpose-specific chemical functionalization.

Type: Article
Title: A simple and mild chemical oxidation route to high-purity nano-graphene oxide
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.022
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.022
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2016. This manuscript version is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Non-derivative 4.0 International licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This licence allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work for personal and non-commercial use providing author and publisher attribution is clearly stated. Further details about CC BY licences are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Chemistry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1493386
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