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Variation in the activities of late stage filaggrin processing enzymes, calpain-1 and bleomycin hydrolase, together with pyrrolidone carboxylic acid levels, corneocyte phenotypes and plasmin activities in non-sun-exposed and sun-exposed facial stratum corneum of different ethnicities

Raj, N; Voegeli, R; Rawlings, AV; Summers, B; Munday, MR; Lane, ME; (2016) Variation in the activities of late stage filaggrin processing enzymes, calpain-1 and bleomycin hydrolase, together with pyrrolidone carboxylic acid levels, corneocyte phenotypes and plasmin activities in non-sun-exposed and sun-exposed facial stratum corneum of different ethnicities. International Journal of Cosmetic Science , 38 (6) pp. 567-575. 10.1111/ics.12321. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the ethnic differences and effects of photodamage on the relative amounts of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) together with filaggrin processing enzymes in facial stratum corneum is limited. Our aim was to characterize the activities of calpain-1 (C-1), bleomycin hydrolase (BH) and the levels of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA) as a marker for total NMF levels and to relate them to plasmin activities and corneocyte maturation. METHODS: Enzyme activities, PCA levels and corneocyte maturation were determined from facial tape strippings of photoexposed cheek and photoprotected post-auricular areas (PA) of healthy Caucasian (C), Black African (BA) and albino African (AA) female subjects living in South Africa. RESULTS: PCA concentration levels were of the order AA > BA > C subjects, and the highest activities of BH were present in the AA subjects. BH activities were greater on the photoexposed sites for the BA and C subjects, but they were only numerically elevated in the AA subjects. Photoprotected sites had an increase in C-1 activity in pigmented groups (C and BA), whereas in the AA subjects, the opposite was measured. Plasmin activities were greater on the cheek compared with the PA site for the AA and C subjects, but the activity was low in the BA subjects. In both test sites, the AA, but not the BA and C subjects, had smaller, parakeratotic and less mature corneocytes. CONCLUSION: Variation in PCA levels has been found for different ethnic groups in this study (AA > BA > C subjects). The values in the AA subjects are surprising as one might expect that the lack of pigmentation, and thereby increased photodamage, might lead to lower levels. Increased BH, but not C-1 activity, was observed in the AA subjects indicating that BH is associated with PCA production to a greater extent. Surprisingly, corneocyte maturation is still impaired with elevated PCA levels in AA subjects. The higher levels of plasmin and BH activities on the cheeks, especially for AA and C subjects, suggest that they can be used as markers for epidermal photodamage.

Type: Article
Title: Variation in the activities of late stage filaggrin processing enzymes, calpain-1 and bleomycin hydrolase, together with pyrrolidone carboxylic acid levels, corneocyte phenotypes and plasmin activities in non-sun-exposed and sun-exposed facial stratum corneum of different ethnicities
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/ics.12321
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ics.12321
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie. This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: [Raj, N. et al, (2016), Variation in the activities of late stage filaggrin processing enzymes, calpain-1 and bleomycin hydrolase, together with pyrrolidone carboxylic acid levels, corneocyte phenotypes and plasmin activities in non-sun-exposed and sun-exposed facial stratum corneum of different ethnicities. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 38: 567–575. doi: 10.1111/ics.12321], which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ics.12321. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Physical Sciences, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Chemistry, Applied, Dermatology, Chemistry, biomarkers, ethnic differences, face, photodamage, natural moisturizing factor, Transepidermal Water-loss, Human-skin, Immunohistochemical Localization, Molecular-properties, Atopic-dermatitis, Barrier Function, Anatomic Site, Radiation, Integrity, Epidermis
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Pharma and Bio Chemistry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Pharmaceutics
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1481540
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