UCL Discovery
UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery

The clinical and genetic heterogeneity of paroxysmal dyskinesias

Gardiner, AR; Jaffer, F; Dale, RC; Labrum, R; Erro, R; Meyer, E; Xiromerisiou, G; ... Houlden, H; + view all (2015) The clinical and genetic heterogeneity of paroxysmal dyskinesias. Brain , 138 (Pt 12) pp. 3567-3580. 10.1093/brain/awv310. Green open access

[thumbnail of The clinical and genetic heterogeneity of paroxysmal dyskinesias.pdf]
Preview
Text
The clinical and genetic heterogeneity of paroxysmal dyskinesias.pdf

Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract

Paroxysmal dyskinesia can be subdivided into three clinical syndromes: paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or choreoathetosis, paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia, and paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia. Each subtype is associated with the known causative genes PRRT2, SLC2A1 and PNKD, respectively. Although separate screening studies have been carried out on each of the paroxysmal dyskinesia genes, to date there has been no large study across all genes in these disorders and little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms. We analysed all three genes (the whole coding regions of SLC2A1 and PRRT2 and exons one and two of PNKD) in a series of 145 families with paroxysmal dyskinesias as well as in a series of 53 patients with familial episodic ataxia and hemiplegic migraine to investigate the mutation frequency and type and the genetic and phenotypic spectrum. We examined the mRNA expression in brain regions to investigate how selective vulnerability could help explain the phenotypes and analysed the effect of mutations on patient-derived mRNA. Mutations in the PRRT2, SLC2A1 and PNKD genes were identified in 72 families in the entire study. In patients with paroxysmal movement disorders 68 families had mutations (47%) out of 145 patients. PRRT2 mutations were identified in 35% of patients, SLC2A1 mutations in 10%, PNKD in 2%. Two PRRT2 mutations were in familial hemiplegic migraine or episodic ataxia, one SLC2A1 family had episodic ataxia and one PNKD family had familial hemiplegic migraine alone. Several previously unreported mutations were identified. The phenotypes associated with PRRT2 mutations included a high frequency of migraine and hemiplegic migraine. SLC2A1 mutations were associated with variable phenotypes including paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia, episodic ataxia and myotonia and we identified a novel PNKD gene deletion in familial hemiplegic migraine. We found that some PRRT2 loss-of-function mutations cause nonsense mediated decay, except when in the last exon, whereas missense mutations do not affect mRNA. In the PNKD family with a novel deletion, mRNA was truncated losing the C-terminus of PNKD-L and still likely loss-of-function, leading to a reduction of the inhibition of exocytosis, and similar to PRRT2, an increase in vesicle release. This study highlights the frequency, novel mutations and clinical and molecular spectrum of PRRT2, SLC2A1 and PNKD mutations as well as the phenotype-genotype overlap among these paroxysmal movement disorders. The investigation of paroxysmal movement disorders should always include the analysis of all three genes, but around half of our paroxysmal series remain genetically undefined implying that additional genes are yet to be identified.

Type: Article
Title: The clinical and genetic heterogeneity of paroxysmal dyskinesias
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/brain/awv310
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awv310
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: PNKD, PRRT2, SLC2A1, gene, paroxysmal movement disorder
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Movement Neurosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Department of Neuromuscular Diseases
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Developmental Neurosciences Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1474342
Downloads since deposit
113Downloads
Download activity - last month
Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads by country - last 12 months

Archive Staff Only

View Item View Item