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The relationships between body composition characteristics and cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of older British men.

Papachristou, E; Ramsay, SE; Lennon, LT; Papacosta, O; Iliffe, S; Whincup, PH; Wannamethee, SG; (2015) The relationships between body composition characteristics and cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of older British men. BMC Geriatrics , 15 , Article 172. 10.1186/s12877-015-0169-y. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Current research has established obesity as one of the main modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment. However, evidence on the relationships of total and regional body composition measures as well as sarcopenia with cognitive functioning in the older population remains inconsistent. METHODS: Data are based on 1,570 participants from the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a cohort of older British men from 24 British towns initiated in 1978-80, who were re-examined in 2010-12, aged 71-92 years. Cognitive functioning was assessed with the Test-Your-Memory cognitive screening tool. Body composition characteristics assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis included total fat mass (FM), central FM, peripheral FM, and visceral fat level. Sarcopenia was defined using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) definition of severe sarcopenia and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) sarcopenia project criteria. RESULTS: Among 1,570 men, 636 (41 %) were classified in the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 133 (8 %) in the severe cognitive impairment (SCI) groups. Age-adjusted multinomial logistic regressions showed that compared with participants in the normal cognitive ageing group, those with SCI were more likely to have waist circumference >102 cm, BMI >30 kg/m(2), to be in the upper quintile of total FM, central FM, peripheral FM and visceral fat level and to be sarcopenic. The relationships remained significant for total FM (RR = 2.16, 95 % CI 1.29-3.63), central FM (RR = 1.85, 95 % CI 1.09-3.14), peripheral FM (RR = 2.67, 95 % CI 1.59-4.48), visceral fat level (RR = 2.28, 95 % CI 1.32-3.94), BMI (RR = 2.25, 95 % CI 1.36-3.72) and waist circumference (RR = 1.63, 95 % CI 1.05-2.55) after adjustments for alcohol, smoking, social class, physical activity and history of cardiovascular diseases or diabetes. After further adjustments for interleukin-6 and insulin resistance, central FM, waist circumference and sarcopenia were no longer significantly associated with SCI. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of peripheral FM, visceral fat level, and BMI are associated with SCI among older people. Distinct pathophysiological mechanisms link regional adipose tissue deposition and cognitive functioning.

Type: Article
Title: The relationships between body composition characteristics and cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of older British men.
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12877-015-0169-y
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-015-0169-y
Language: English
Additional information: © 2015 Papachristou et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Keywords: Obesity; Adiposity; Sarcopenia; Cognition; Dementia; Ageing
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education > UCL Institute of Education
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education > UCL Institute of Education > IOE - Psychology and Human Development
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Primary Care and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1473610
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