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Design, development and testing of a magnetic haemofilter for clinical applications

Frodsham, GCM; (2015) Design, development and testing of a magnetic haemofilter for clinical applications. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

Abstract In this thesis I present the magnetic haemofilter - a novel medical device designed to remove magnetic materials directly from a patient's bloodstream. The haemofilter is a high gradient magnetic separator incorporated into an extra-corporeal loop. A patient's blood is constantly circulated through the device, which magnetically captures and retains target agents while the rest of the blood returns to the patient unharmed. Clinical versions of the device were conceived, designed and modelled. Small scale versions, designed to mimic the performance of the clinical designs, were manufactured using 3D printing and tested in benchtop in vitro experiments. Abstract Many potential applications for the device are envisioned, and justified with an extensive literary review of magnetic labelling, the process of binding magnetic particles to specific targets to enable their separation. The device has significant potential as a platform technology enabling these varied applications. In this project, however, malaria was chosen as the primary application. Malaria infected red blood cells are paramagnetic, so their separation does not require magnetic labelling - the haemofilter simply exploits their naturally occurring magnetic properties. Abstract The haemofilter was tested using samples of malaria infected blood filtered at a variety of flow rates, with a reduction in parasitaemia observed in every experiment at throughputs orders of magnitude higher than any previously reported clinical magnetic haemofiltration device. The results demonstrate that even without further optimisation, the clinical version of the device could halve a child's parasitaemia in less than 90 minutes. The flow rates used in the experiments, and those that could be used in the clinical versions, are orders of magnitude higher than any previously reported clinical magnetic haemofilter. Experiments on samples donated by malaria patients demonstrated that no other blood components are affected by the process. Abstract A commercial evaluation of the haemofilter as a medical device to treat malaria was conducted. The market analysis showed a large potential total addressable market, segmented into three principal patient populations. The product development and manufacturing costs were estimated and shown to be reasonable, while a financial analysis showed that a margin could be earned while still saving customers money. A route-to-market and commercialisation strategy is presented. Abstract I conclude that the magnetic haemofilter has the potential to deliver significant clinical benefits to a wide variety of malaria patients, saving lives in serious cases, providing a treatment option for currently untreatable patients, and speeding up recovery in uncomplicated cases, while improving the efficacy and eliminating the side-effects of pharmaceutical drugs.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Title: Design, development and testing of a magnetic haemofilter for clinical applications
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Engineering Science Faculty Office
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1467411
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