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The node of Ranvier in CNS pathology.

Arancibia-Carcamo, IL; Attwell, D; (2014) The node of Ranvier in CNS pathology. Acta Neuropathol , 28 (8) pp. 161-175. 10.1007/s00401-014-1305-z. Green open access

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Abstract

Healthy nodes of Ranvier are crucial for action potential propagation along myelinated axons, both in the central and in the peripheral nervous system. Surprisingly, the node of Ranvier has often been neglected when describing CNS disorders, with most pathologies classified simply as being due to neuronal defects in the grey matter or due to oligodendrocyte damage in the white matter. However, recent studies have highlighted changes that occur in pathological conditions at the node of Ranvier, and at the associated paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions where neurons and myelinating glial cells interact. Lengthening of the node of Ranvier, failure of the electrically resistive seal between the myelin and the axon at the paranode, and retraction of myelin to expose voltage-gated K(+) channels in the juxtaparanode, may contribute to altering the function of myelinated axons in a wide range of diseases, including stroke, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Here, we review the principles by which the node of Ranvier operates and its molecular structure, and thus explain how defects at the node and paranode contribute to neurological disorders.

Type: Article
Title: The node of Ranvier in CNS pathology.
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s00401-014-1305-z
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-014-1305-z
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2014. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.
Keywords: Neuron · Node of Ranvier · Sodium channel · Myelin
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > UK Dementia Research Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Neuro, Physiology and Pharmacology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1432396
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