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Polymers from food wastes

Sanchez Vazquez, SA; (2014) Polymers from food wastes. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

The first part focuses on the conversion of limonene to dimethylstyrene in order to produce polymeric materials. Limonene was dehydrogenated over a palladium catalyst with an anhydrous solvent and base using copper chloride as oxidant under argon atmosphere at 120 °C. Solvent, base, catalyst and reaction conditions were varied in an attempt to improve conversion to DMS. The conditions for conversion to dimethylstyrene without by-products were established. Alternative and cheaper bases and catalysts were identified. It was observed that 69% of the polymer obtained was insoluble in organic solvents while the soluble part had an average MW of 3800. The second part focuses on the polymerization of chlorogenic acid, a potato waste product, by enzyme - based solution polymerization as a potential biomaterial. Three environments were used: (i) phosphate buffer pH7 and methanol, (ii) unbuffered water- methanol, and (iii) aqueous buffer pH7 with poly(ethylene glycol) template. To compare and understand this reaction, chlorogenic analogues were studied. Phenol polymerized to high yields in all environments. 2,3 - dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechol and 2,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid polymerized to moderately high yield in (i). Caffeic acid polymerised with 23% yield in (ii) but both caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid produced higher yields when the templating method (iii) was used. The third part of the project focused on the polymerization of oleic acid obtained from mango seed butter. Oleic acid was first purified from mango butter, then esterificated using 1,3 - propanediol, resorcinol and orcinol. The resulting di-esters were epoxidized and crosslinking reactions were attempted using anhydride and amine curing agents. All polymers obtained were in form of waxes and dissolved in organic solvents, with the expection of epoxidized resorcinol di -ester cured using phenylenediamine. Finally a study of the interaction of all the monomers with montmorillonite clay was made. Chlorogenic acid and oleic acid intercalated into the unmodified clay layers while an organoclay was used with D -limonene and dimethylstyrene to obtain intercalation.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Title: Polymers from food wastes
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Chemistry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1426392
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