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Biomass fuel use and the exposure of children to particulate air pollution in southern Nepal.

Devakumar, D; Semple, S; Osrin, D; Yadav, SK; Kurmi, OP; Saville, NM; Shrestha, B; ... Ayres, JG; + view all (2014) Biomass fuel use and the exposure of children to particulate air pollution in southern Nepal. Environ Int , 66C 79 - 87. 10.1016/j.envint.2014.01.011. Green open access

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Abstract

The exposure of children to air pollution in low resource settings is believed to be high because of the common use of biomass fuels for cooking. We used microenvironment sampling to estimate the respirable fraction of air pollution (particles with median diameter less than 4μm) to which 7-9year old children in southern Nepal were exposed. Sampling was conducted for a total 2649h in 55 households, 8 schools and 8 outdoor locations of rural Dhanusha. We conducted gravimetric and photometric sampling in a subsample of the children in our study in the locations in which they usually resided (bedroom/living room, kitchen, veranda, in school and outdoors), repeated three times over one year. Using time activity information, a 24-hour time weighted average was modeled for all the children in the study. Approximately two-thirds of homes used biomass fuels, with the remainder mostly using gas. The exposure of children to air pollution was very high. The 24-hour time weighted average over the whole year was 168μg/m(3). The non-kitchen related samples tended to show approximately double the concentration in winter than spring/autumn, and four times that of the monsoon season. There was no difference between the exposure of boys and girls. Air pollution in rural households was much higher than the World Health Organization and the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nepal recommendations for particulate exposure.

Type: Article
Title: Biomass fuel use and the exposure of children to particulate air pollution in southern Nepal.
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.01.011
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.01.011
Additional information: © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
Keywords: Child health, Exposure modeling, Particulate matter
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1420507
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