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What is the real physiological NO concentration in vivo?

Hall, CN; Garthwaite, J; (2009) What is the real physiological NO concentration in vivo? [Review]. Nitric Oxide , 21 (2) 92 - 103. 10.1016/j.niox.2009.07.002. Green open access

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Abstract

Clarity about the nitric oxide (NO) concentrations existing physiologically is essential for developing a quantitative understanding of NO signalling, for performing experiments with NO that emulate reality, and for knowing whether or not NO concentrations become abnormal in disease states. A decade ago, a value of about 1 mu M seemed reasonable based on early electrode measurements and a provisional estimate of the potency of NO for its guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors, which mediate physiological NO signal transduction. Since then, numerous efforts to measure NO concentrations directly using electrodes in cells and tissues have yielded an irreconcilably large spread of values. In compensation, data from several alternative approaches have now converged to provide a more coherent picture. These approaches include the quantitative analysis of NO-activated guanylyl cyclase, computer modelling based on the type, activity and amount of NO synthase enzyme contained in cells, the use of novel biosensors to monitor NO release from single endothelial cells and neurones, and the use of guanylyl cyclase as an endogenous NO biosensor in tissue subjected to a variety of challenges. All these independent lines of evidence suggest the physiological NO concentration range to be 100 pM (or below) up to similar to 5 nM, orders of magnitude lower than was once thought.

Type: Article
Title: What is the real physiological NO concentration in vivo?
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.niox.2009.07.002
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2009.07.002
Language: English
Additional information: An Open Access Elsevier publication.
Keywords: Nitric oxide, guanylyl cyclase, cgmp, cytochrome c oxidase, mitochondria, inflammation, excitotoxicity, nitric-oxide release, cytochrome-c-oxidase, soluble guanylate-cyclase, long-term potentiation, carbon-fiber microelectrodes, cultured endothelial-cells, rat cerebellar slices, smooth-muscle-cells, methyl-d-aspartate, oxygen-consumption
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Wolfson Inst for Biomedical Research
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/141212
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