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The development of a valid and reliable scale for rating anxiety in dementia (RAID)

Shankar, KK; Walker, M; Frost, D; Orrell, MW; (1999) The development of a valid and reliable scale for rating anxiety in dementia (RAID). AGING MENT HEALTH , 3 (1) 39 - 49. 10.1080/13607869956424. Green open access

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Abstract

A rating scale to measure anxiety in dementia sufferers was developed and evaluated in a sample of 51 inpatients and 32 day-hospital patients. Anxiety scores were not related to sex, age, accommodation or DSM-IV diagnosis of the type of dementia. However, both subjects with physical illnesses and subjects with insight into their memory problems had significantly higher anxiety scores. The kappa values for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.51 to I and for test-retest reliability from 0.53 to 1, which indicates moderate to good reliability. The overall agreement on individual items ranged from 82-100% (inter-rater) and 84-100% (test-retest). The professionals working in the care of the elderly and carer groups felt that the scale was comprehensive and all the items in the scale were important, thereby confirming that it has good content validity. The scale significantly correlated with other anxiety scales and also with independent ratings both by a consultant psychiatrist and also nursing staff, indicating good concurrent validity. Anxiety scores were significantly higher in dementia patients who fulfilled modified DSM-IV criteria for anxiety and clinical diagnosis of anxiety disorder. This showed evidence of good criterion validity. Factor analysis showed five factors, including all items of the scale. Scores of 11 and above on the scale indicated significant clinical anxiety. Overall, the scale had good reliability and validity. It should be a useful clinical and research instrument for assessing anxiety in dementia sufferers.

Type: Article
Title: The development of a valid and reliable scale for rating anxiety in dementia (RAID)
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1080/13607869956424
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607869956424
Additional information: © Carfax Publishing Limited
Keywords: URBAN ELDERLY COMMUNITY, AGE CONCERN SURVEY, AGITATED BEHAVIORS, MENTAL STATE, RELIABILITY, DEPRESSION, INSTRUMENT, INTERVIEW, DISORDERS, SYMPTOMS
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/136552
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