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The Emerging Role of TLR and Innate Immunity in Cardiovascular Disease

Spirig, R; Tsui, J; Shaw, S; (2012) The Emerging Role of TLR and Innate Immunity in Cardiovascular Disease. Cardiology Research and Practice , 2012 , Article 181394. 10.1155/2012/181394. Green open access

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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is a complex disorder involving multiple pathophysiological processes, several of which involve activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. As sentinels of innate immunity TLRs are nonclonally germline-encoded molecular pattern recognition receptors that recognize exogenous as well as tissue-derived molecular dangers signals promoting inflammation. In addition to their expression in immune cells, TLRs are found in other tissues and cell types including cardiomyocytes, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. TLRs are differentially regulated in various cell types by several cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia and may represent a key mechanism linking chronic inflammation, cardiovascular disease progression, and activation of the immune system. Modulation of TLR signaling by specific TLR agonists or antagonists, alone or in combination, may be a useful therapeutic approach to treat various cardiovascular inflammatory conditions such as atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, secondary microvascular complications of diabetes, autoimmune disease, and ischemia reperfusion injury. In this paper we discuss recent developments and current evidence for the role of TLR in cardiovascular disease as well as the therapeutic potential of various compounds on inhibition of TLR-mediated inflammatory responses.

Type: Article
Title: The Emerging Role of TLR and Innate Immunity in Cardiovascular Disease
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1155/2012/181394
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/181394
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2012 Rolf Spirig et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1356217
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