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Human population density and extinction risk in the world's carnivores.

Cardillo, M; Purvis, A; Sechrest, W; Gittleman, JL; Bielby, J; Mace, GM; (2004) Human population density and extinction risk in the world's carnivores. PLoS Biol , 2 (7) , Article E197. 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020197. Green open access

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Abstract

Understanding why some species are at high risk of extinction, while others remain relatively safe, is central to the development of a predictive conservation science. Recent studies have shown that a species' extinction risk may be determined by two types of factors: intrinsic biological traits and exposure to external anthropogenic threats. However, little is known about the relative and interacting effects of intrinsic and external variables on extinction risk. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we show that extinction risk in the mammal order Carnivora is predicted more strongly by biology than exposure to high-density human populations. However, biology interacts with human population density to determine extinction risk: biological traits explain 80% of variation in risk for carnivore species with high levels of exposure to human populations, compared to 45% for carnivores generally. The results suggest that biology will become a more critical determinant of risk as human populations expand. We demonstrate how a model predicting extinction risk from biology can be combined with projected human population density to identify species likely to move most rapidly towards extinction by the year 2030. African viverrid species are particularly likely to become threatened, even though most are currently considered relatively safe. We suggest that a preemptive approach to species conservation is needed to identify and protect species that may not be threatened at present but may become so in the near future.

Type: Article
Title: Human population density and extinction risk in the world's carnivores.
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020197
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0020197
Language: English
Additional information: © 2004 Cardillo et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Animals, Biodiversity, Biological Evolution, Carnivora, Conservation of Natural Resources, Ecology, Ecosystem, Environment, Humans, Mammals, Models, Biological, Models, Statistical, Phylogeny, Population Density, Population Dynamics, Regression Analysis, Risk, Species Specificity
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Genetics, Evolution and Environment
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1355738
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