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Toll-Like Receptors in Ischaemia and Its Potential Role in the Pathophysiology of Muscle Damage in Critical Limb Ischaemia

Patel, H; Shaw, SG; Shi-Wen, X; Abraham, D; Baker, DM; Tsui, JC; (2012) Toll-Like Receptors in Ischaemia and Its Potential Role in the Pathophysiology of Muscle Damage in Critical Limb Ischaemia. Cardiology Research and Practice , 2012 , Article 121237. 10.1155/2012/121237. Green open access

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Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key receptors of the innate immune system which are expressed on immune and nonimmune cells. They are activated by both pathogen-associated molecular patterns and endogenous ligands. Activation of TLRs culminates in the release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and apoptosis. Ischaemia and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are associated with significant inflammation and tissue damage. There is emerging evidence to suggest that TLRs are involved in mediating ischaemia-induced damage in several organs. Critical limb ischaemia (CLI) is the most severe form of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is associated with skeletal muscle damage and tissue loss; however its pathophysiology is poorly understood. This paper will underline the evidence implicating TLRs in the pathophysiology of cerebral, renal, hepatic, myocardial, and skeletal muscle ischaemia and I/R injury and discuss preliminary data that alludes to the potential role of TLRs in the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle damage in CLI.

Type: Article
Title: Toll-Like Receptors in Ischaemia and Its Potential Role in the Pathophysiology of Muscle Damage in Critical Limb Ischaemia
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1155/2012/121237
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/121237
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2012 Hemanshu Patel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1345813
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