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Thioredoxin is a metabolic rheostat controlling regulatory B cells

Bradford, HF; McDonnell, TCR; Stewart, A; Skelton, A; Ng, J; Baig, Z; Fraternali, F; ... Mauri, C; + view all (2024) Thioredoxin is a metabolic rheostat controlling regulatory B cells. Nature Immunology 10.1038/s41590-024-01798-w. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Metabolic programming is important for B cell fate, but the bioenergetic requirement for regulatory B (Breg) cell differentiation and function is unknown. Here we show that Breg cell differentiation, unlike non-Breg cells, relies on mitochondrial electron transport and homeostatic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis revealed that TXN, encoding the metabolic redox protein thioredoxin (Trx), is highly expressed by Breg cells, unlike Trx inhibitor TXNIP which was downregulated. Pharmacological inhibition or gene silencing of TXN resulted in mitochondrial membrane depolarization and increased ROS levels, selectively suppressing Breg cell differentiation and function while favoring pro-inflammatory B cell differentiation. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), characterized by Breg cell deficiencies, present with B cell mitochondrial membrane depolarization, elevated ROS and fewer Trx+ B cells. Exogenous Trx stimulation restored Breg cells and mitochondrial membrane polarization in SLE B cells to healthy B cell levels, indicating Trx insufficiency underlies Breg cell impairment in patients with SLE.

Type: Article
Title: Thioredoxin is a metabolic rheostat controlling regulatory B cells
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41590-024-01798-w
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-024-01798-w
Language: English
Additional information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: Autoimmunity, B cells, Biochemistry, Pathogenesis
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Structural and Molecular Biology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10190311
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