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Alemtuzumab, Dual Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis, and Lower CD3+ T Cell Doses Equalize Rates of Acute and Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in Pediatric Patients Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Matched Unrelated Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cells or Bone Marrow Grafts

Lum, SH; James, B; Ottaviano, G; Ewins, AM; Patrick, K; Ali, S; Carpenter, B; ... Wynn, R; + view all (2023) Alemtuzumab, Dual Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis, and Lower CD3+ T Cell Doses Equalize Rates of Acute and Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in Pediatric Patients Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Matched Unrelated Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cells or Bone Marrow Grafts. Transplantation and Cellular Therapy 10.1016/j.jtct.2023.12.005. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Data comparing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts in children after alemtuzumab-based conditioning are lacking. We investigated whether in vivo T cell depletion using alemtuzumab could reduce the risk of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) after HSCT with matched unrelated donor (MUD) BM or PBSCs. This retrospective multicenter study included 397 children (BM group, n = 202; PBSC group, n = 195) who underwent first MUD HSCT at 9 pediatric centers in the United Kingdom between 2015 and 2019. The median age at transplantation was 7.0 years (range, .1 to 19.3 years), and the median duration of follow-up was 3.1 years (range, .3 to 7.5 years). The 3-year overall survival was 81% for the entire cohort (BM group, 80%; PBSC group, 81%). The incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD was significantly higher in the PBSC group (31%) compared to the BM group (31% versus 19%; P = .003), with no difference in the incidence of grade III-IV aGVHD (BM, 7%; PBSC, 12%; P = .17). CD3+ T cell dose >5 × 108/kg and the use of PBSCs were independent predictors of grade II-IV aGVHD. When considering CD3+ T cell dose and GVHD prophylaxis, PBSC transplantation with a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and a CD3+ T cell dose ≤5 × 108/kg had a comparable grade II-IV aGVHD to BM transplantation plus a CNI (20% versus 18%; P = .52). PBSC transplantation was associated with a lower incidence of cGVHD compared to BM transplantation (6% versus 11%; P = .03). Within the limits of this study, we identified a potential strategy to reduce the risk of severe GVHD in pediatric PBSC recipients that includes a combination of in vivo T cell depletion using alemtuzumab and dual GVHD prophylaxis (with a CNI and MMF) and limiting the CD3+ T cell dose to ≤5 × 108/kg.

Type: Article
Title: Alemtuzumab, Dual Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis, and Lower CD3+ T Cell Doses Equalize Rates of Acute and Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in Pediatric Patients Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Matched Unrelated Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cells or Bone Marrow Grafts
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.jtct.2023.12.005
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2023.12.005
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Keywords: Alemtuzumab, Bone marrow, Children, Peripheral blood stem cells, Transplantation
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute > Research Department of Haematology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10186426
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