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Millimeter emission in photoevaporating disks is determined by early substructures

Gárate, Matías; Birnstiel, Til; Pinilla, Paola; Andrews, Sean M; Franz, Raphael; Stammler, Sebastian Markus; Picogna, Giovanni; ... Kurtovic, Nicolás T; + view all (2023) Millimeter emission in photoevaporating disks is determined by early substructures. Astronomy & Astrophysics , 679 , Article A15. 10.1051/0004-6361/202244436. Green open access

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Context. Photoevaporation and dust-trapping are individually considered to be important mechanisms in the evolution and morphology of protoplanetary disks. However, it is not yet clear what kind of observational features are expected when both processes operate simultaneously. Aims. We studied how the presence (or absence) of early substructures, such as the gaps caused by planets, affects the evolution of the dust distribution and flux in the millimeter continuum of disks that are undergoing photoevaporative dispersal. We also tested if the predicted properties resemble those observed in the population of transition disks. Methods. We used the numerical code Dustpy to simulate disk evolution considering gas accretion, dust growth, dust-trapping at substructures, and mass loss due to X-ray and EUV (XEUV) photoevaporation and dust entrainment. Then, we compared how the dust mass and millimeter flux evolve for different disk models. Results. We find that, during photoevaporative dispersal, disks with primordial substructures retain more dust and are brighter in the millimeter continuum than disks without early substructures, regardless of the photoevaporative cavity size. Once the photoevaporative cavity opens, the estimated fluxes for the disk models that are initially structured are comparable to those found in the bright transition disk population (Fmm > 30 mJy), while the disk models that are initially smooth have fluxes comparable to the transition disks from the faint population (Fmm < 30 mJy), suggesting a link between each model and population. Conclusions. Our models indicate that the efficiency of the dust trapping determines the millimeter flux of the disk, while the gas loss due to photoevaporation controls the formation and expansion of a cavity, decoupling the mechanisms responsible for each feature. In consequence, even a planet with a mass comparable to Saturn could trap enough dust to reproduce the millimeter emission of a bright transition disk, while its cavity size is independently driven by photoevaporative dispersal.

Type: Article
Title: Millimeter emission in photoevaporating disks is determined by early substructures
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202244436
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202244436
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Space and Climate Physics
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10182379
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