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Developing a personalized remote patient monitoring algorithm: a proof-of-concept in heart failure

Moazeni, Mehran; Numan, Lieke; Brons, Maaike; Houtgraaf, Jaco; Rutten, Frans H; Oberski, Daniel L; van Laake, Linda W; ... Aarts, Emmeke; + view all (2023) Developing a personalized remote patient monitoring algorithm: a proof-of-concept in heart failure. European Heart Journal - Digital Health , Article ztad049. 10.1093/ehjdh/ztad049. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Aims Non-invasive remote patient monitoring is an increasingly popular technique to aid clinicians in the early detection of worsening heart failure (HF) alongside regular follow-ups. However, previous studies have shown mixed results in the performance of such systems. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a personalized monitoring algorithm aimed at increasing positive-predictive-value (PPV) (i.e. alarm quality) and compared performance with simple rule-of-thumb and moving average convergence-divergence algorithms (MACD). Methods and results In this proof-of-concept study, the developed algorithm was applied to retrospective data of daily bodyweight, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure of 74 HF-patients with a median observation period of 327 days (IQR: 183 days), during which 31 patients experienced 64 clinical worsening HF episodes. The algorithm combined information on both the monitored patients and a group of stable HF patients, and is increasingly personalized over time, using linear mixed-effect modelling and statistical process control charts. Optimized on alarm quality, heart rate showed the highest PPV (Personalized: 92%, MACD: 2%, Rule-of-thumb: 7%) with an F1 score of (Personalized: 28%, MACD: 6%, Rule-of-thumb: 8%). Bodyweight demonstrated the lowest PPV (Personalized: 16%, MACD: 0%, Rule-of-thumb: 6%) and F1 score (Personalized: 10%, MACD: 3%, Rule-of-thumb: 7%) overall compared methods. Conclusion The personalized algorithm with flexible patient-tailored thresholds led to higher PPV, and performance was more sensitive compared to common simple monitoring methods (rule-of-thumb and MACD). However, many episodes of worsening HF remained undetected. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure monitoring outperformed bodyweight in predicting worsening HF. The algorithm source code is publicly available for future validation and improvement.

Type: Article
Title: Developing a personalized remote patient monitoring algorithm: a proof-of-concept in heart failure
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/ehjdh/ztad049
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjdh/ztad049
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com
Keywords: Intensive longitudinal data, Remote patient monitoring, Process monitoring, Statistical process control chart, Heart failure, Dynamic monitoring
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Health Informatics
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Health Informatics > Clinical Epidemiology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10178819
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