UCL Discovery
UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery

An epidemiological investigation of the burden of and facility-level risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in care home staff and residents

Krutikov, Maria; (2023) An epidemiological investigation of the burden of and facility-level risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in care home staff and residents. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London). Green open access

[thumbnail of PhD_thesis_MariaKrutikov_UCLdeposit1.pdf]
Preview
Text
PhD_thesis_MariaKrutikov_UCLdeposit1.pdf - Submitted Version

Download (5MB) | Preview
[thumbnail of Krutikov_10178728_thesis Appendix_redacted.pdf]
Preview
Text
Krutikov_10178728_thesis Appendix_redacted.pdf

Download (26MB) | Preview

Abstract

Background The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted care homes, highlighting their vulnerability to infection. I described the burden of infection and investigated facility-level risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infections and outbreaks within care homes. Methods I helped to rapidly establish the VIVALDI cohort study in ~330 care homes for older people in England (ISRCTN14447421), which hosted my analyses. I reviewed the literature to investigate risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 in care homes. Using data from asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 testing and anti-nucleocapsid (from infection) and anti-spike (from vaccination) antibodies in care home staff and residents, I estimated prevalence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection across homes and modelled longevity of antibody responses following infection and vaccination. Finally, I designed a built environment survey and evaluated environmental risk factors for ingress and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Results Within VIVALDI, over one-quarter of staff and one-third of residents were infected over 15 months from the pandemic start, increasing to two-thirds after two years. I showed that nucleocapsid-antibodies were negative in half of participants eight months post-infection, suggesting waning immunity, however spike-antibody waning rates following vaccination were comparable between staff and residents. I demonstrated rapid spread of the emergent B.1.1.7 variant in care homes, suggesting introduction of infection from the community. Community incidence of SARS-CoV-2 was also the main risk factor for infection ingress (measured by outbreak incidence) but not transmission (measured by infection incidence, outbreak size, and duration), which was associated with environmental factors like bedroom and storey number, building type, indoor temperature, air quality, and ventilation. Conclusion Care homes experienced high SARS-CoV-2 rates despite stringent control measures, with comparable antibody responses between staff and residents that wane following infection. Although preventing infection entry is challenging, environmental modifications may limit spread. Building on lessons from VIVALDI, controlling infection in care homes should be a research priority.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: An epidemiological investigation of the burden of and facility-level risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in care home staff and residents
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2023. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Health Informatics
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10178728
Downloads since deposit
16Downloads
Download activity - last month
Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads by country - last 12 months

Archive Staff Only

View Item View Item