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Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Age at Natural Menopause and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Postmenopausal Women: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Data From 13 Cohort Studies

Chung, Hsin-Fang; Dobson, Annette J; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Anderson, Debra J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; ... Mishra, Gita D; + view all (2023) Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Age at Natural Menopause and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Postmenopausal Women: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Data From 13 Cohort Studies. Diabetes Care , Article dc231209. 10.2337/dc23-1209. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between age at natural menopause, particularly premature ovarian insufficiency (POI; natural menopause before age 40 years), and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) and identify any variations by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We pooled individual-level data of 338,059 women from 13 cohort studies without T2D before menopause from six ethnic groups: White (n = 177,674), Chinese (n = 146,008), Japanese (n = 9,061), South/Southeast Asian (n = 2,228), Black (n = 1,838), and mixed/other (n = 1,250). Hazard ratios (HRs) of T2D associated with age at menopause were estimated in the overall sample and by ethnicity, with study as a random effect. For each ethnic group, we further stratified the association by birth year, education level, and BMI. RESULTS: Over 9 years of follow-up, 20,064 (5.9%) women developed T2D. Overall, POI (vs. menopause at age 50-51 years) was associated with an increased risk of T2D (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.20-1.44), and there was an interaction between age at menopause and ethnicity (P < 0.0001). T2D risk associated with POI was higher in White (1.53; 1.36-1.73), Japanese (4.04; 1.97-8.27), and Chinese women born in 1950 or later (2.79; 2.11-3.70); although less precise, the risk estimates were consistent in women of South/Southeast Asian (1.46; 0.89-2.40), Black (1.72; 0.95-3.12), and mixed/other (2.16; 0.83-5.57) ethnic groups. A similar pattern, but with a smaller increased risk of T2D, was observed with early menopause overall (1.16; 1.10-1.23) and for White, Japanese, and Chinese women born in 1950 or later. CONCLUSIONS: POI and early menopause are risk factors for T2D in postmenopausal women, with considerable variation across ethnic groups, and may need to be considered in risk assessments of T2D among women.

Type: Article
Title: Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Age at Natural Menopause and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Postmenopausal Women: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Data From 13 Cohort Studies
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.2337/dc23-1209
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.2337/dc23-1209
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine > MRC Unit for Lifelong Hlth and Ageing
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10178124
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