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Cathepsin B abundance, activity and microglial localisation in Alzheimer's disease-Down syndrome and early onset Alzheimer's disease; the role of elevated cystatin B

Wu, Yixing; Mumford, Paige; Noy, Suzanna; Cleverley, Karen; Mrzyglod, Alicja; Luo, Dinghao; van Dalen, Floris; ... Wiseman, Frances K; + view all (2023) Cathepsin B abundance, activity and microglial localisation in Alzheimer's disease-Down syndrome and early onset Alzheimer's disease; the role of elevated cystatin B. Acta Neuropathologica Communications , 11 , Article 132. 10.1186/s40478-023-01632-8. Green open access

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Abstract

Cathepsin B is a cysteine protease that is implicated in multiple aspects of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. The endogenous inhibitor of this enzyme, cystatin B (CSTB) is encoded on chromosome 21. Thus, individuals who have Down syndrome, a genetic condition caused by having an additional copy of chromosome 21, have an extra copy of an endogenous inhibitor of the enzyme. Individuals who have Down syndrome are also at significantly increased risk of developing early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). The impact of the additional copy of CSTB on Alzheimer's disease development in people who have Down syndrome is not well understood. Here we compared the biology of cathepsin B and CSTB in individuals who had Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease, with disomic individuals who had Alzheimer's disease or were ageing healthily. We find that the activity of cathepsin B enzyme is decreased in the brain of people who had Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease compared with disomic individuals who had Alzheimer's disease. This change occurs independently of an alteration in the abundance of the mature enzyme or the number of cathepsin B+ cells. We find that the abundance of CSTB is significantly increased in the brains of individuals who have Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease compared to disomic individuals both with and without Alzheimer's disease. In mouse and human cellular preclinical models of Down syndrome, three-copies of CSTB increases CSTB protein abundance but this is not sufficient to modulate cathepsin B activity. EOAD and Alzheimer's disease-Down syndrome share many overlapping mechanisms but differences in disease occur in individuals who have trisomy 21. Understanding this biology will ensure that people who have Down syndrome access the most appropriate Alzheimer's disease therapeutics and moreover will provide unique insight into disease pathogenesis more broadly.

Type: Article
Title: Cathepsin B abundance, activity and microglial localisation in Alzheimer's disease-Down syndrome and early onset Alzheimer's disease; the role of elevated cystatin B
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s40478-023-01632-8
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40478-023-01632-8
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Down syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Cathepsin B, Cystatin B
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > UK Dementia Research Institute
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10175424
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