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Sex differences in the generalizability of randomized clinical trials in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

Schroeder, M; Lim, YMF; Savarese, G; Suzart-Woischnik, K; Baudier, C; Dyszynski, T; Vaartjes, I; ... Koudstaal, S; + view all (2023) Sex differences in the generalizability of randomized clinical trials in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. European Journal of Heart Failure 10.1002/ejhf.2868. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Aims: In order to understand how sex differences impact the generalizability of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), we sought to compare clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes between RCTs and HF observational registries stratified by sex. Methods and results: Data from two HF registries and five HFrEF RCTs were used to create three subpopulations: one RCT population (n = 16 917; 21.7% females), registry patients eligible for RCT inclusion (n = 26 104; 31.8% females), and registry patients ineligible for RCT inclusion (n = 20 810; 30.2% females). Clinical endpoints included all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and first HF hospitalization at 1 year. Males and females were equally eligible for trial enrolment (56.9% of females and 55.1% of males in the registries). One-year mortality rates were 5.6%, 14.0%, and 28.6% for females and 6.9%, 10.7%, and 24.6% for males in the RCT, RCT-eligible, and RCT-ineligible groups, respectively. After adjusting for 11 HF prognostic variables, RCT females showed higher survival compared to RCT-eligible females (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62–0.83), while RCT males showed higher adjusted mortality rates compared to RCT-eligible males (SMR 1.16; 95% CI 1.09–1.24). Similar results were also found for cardiovascular mortality (SMR 0.89; 95% CI 0.76–1.03 for females, SMR 1.43; 95% CI 1.33–1.53 for males). Conclusion: Generalizability of HFrEF RCTs differed substantially between the sexes, with females having lower trial participation and female trial participants having lower mortality rates compared to similar females in the registries, while males had higher than expected cardiovascular mortality rates in RCTs compared to similar males in registries.

Type: Article
Title: Sex differences in the generalizability of randomized clinical trials in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1002/ejhf.2868
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2868
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society of Cardiology. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Keywords: Enrichment strategies, Females, Heart failure, Randomized clinical trial, Real-world evidence, Standardized mortality ratios
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Health Informatics
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Health Informatics > Clinical Epidemiology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10171567
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