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Conditioning: how background variables can influence PISA scores

Zieger, Laura Raffaella; Jerrim, J; Anders, J; Shure, N; (2022) Conditioning: how background variables can influence PISA scores. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice , 29 (6) pp. 632-652. 10.1080/0969594x.2022.2118665. Green open access

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Abstract

The OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has become one of the key studies for evidence-based education policymaking across the globe. PISA has however received a lot of methodological criticism, including how the test scores are created. The aim of this paper is to investigate the so-called ‘conditioning model’, where background variables are used to derive student achievement scores, and the impact it has upon the PISA results. This includes varying the background variables used within the conditioning model and analysing its impact upon countries relatively positions in the PISA rankings. Our key finding is that the exact specification of the conditioning model matters; cross-country comparisons of PISA scores can change depending upon the statistical methodology used.

Type: Article
Title: Conditioning: how background variables can influence PISA scores
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1080/0969594x.2022.2118665
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2022.2118665
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Educational assessment, PISA, item response theory
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education > UCL Institute of Education
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education > UCL Institute of Education > IOE - Social Research Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education
UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education > UCL Institute of Education > IOE - Learning and Leadership > Centre for Education Policy and Equalising Opportunities
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Education > UCL Institute of Education > IOE - Learning and Leadership
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10157019
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