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Biophysical characterization of the inactivation of E. coli transketolase by aqueous co-solvents

Morris, P; García-Arrazola, R; Rios-Solis, L; Dalby, PA; (2021) Biophysical characterization of the inactivation of E. coli transketolase by aqueous co-solvents. Scientific Reports , 11 , Article 23584. 10.1038/s41598-021-03001-8. Green open access

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Abstract

Transketolase (TK) has been previously engineered, using semi-rational directed evolution and substrate walking, to accept increasingly aliphatic, cyclic, and then aromatic substrates. This has ultimately led to the poor water solubility of new substrates, as a potential bottleneck to further exploitation of this enzyme in biocatalysis. Here we used a range of biophysical studies to characterise the response of both E. coli apo- and holo-TK activity and structure to a range of polar organic co-solvents: acetonitrile (AcCN), n-butanol (nBuOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), isopropanol (iPrOH), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). The mechanism of enzyme deactivation was found to be predominantly via solvent-induced local unfolding. Holo-TK is thermodynamically more stable than apo-TK and yet for four of the five co-solvents it retained less activity than apo-TK after exposure to organic solvents, indicating that solvent tolerance was not simply correlated to global conformational stability. The co-solvent concentrations required for complete enzyme inactivation was inversely proportional to co-solvent log(P), while the unfolding rate was directly proportional, indicating that the solvents interact with and partially unfold the enzyme through hydrophobic contacts. Small amounts of aggregate formed in some cases, but this was not sufficient to explain the enzyme inactivation. TK was found to be tolerant to 15% (v/v) iPrOH, 10% (v/v) AcCN, or 6% (v/v) nBuOH over 3 h. This work indicates that future attempts to engineer the enzyme to better tolerate co-solvents should focus on increasing the stability of the protein to local unfolding, particularly in and around the cofactor-binding loops.

Type: Article
Title: Biophysical characterization of the inactivation of E. coli transketolase by aqueous co-solvents
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-03001-8
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-03001-8
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Biochemical Engineering
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10140790
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