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Evolution of Pneumatic Tsunami Simulators–From Concept to Proven Experimental Technique

Chandler, I; Allsop, W; Robinson, D; Rossetto, T; (2021) Evolution of Pneumatic Tsunami Simulators–From Concept to Proven Experimental Technique. Frontiers in Built Environment , 7 , Article 674659. 10.3389/fbuil.2021.674659. Green open access

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Abstract

This paper describes the evolution through three generations of pneumatic Tsunami Simulators for physical model tests of realistic tsunami. The pneumatic method, originally developed for tidal modeling in the Fifties, has been modernized to generate extraordinarily long waves in a controlled manner, with accurate reproduction of recorded free-surface tsunami field data. The paper describes how the simulator designs were developed and how they performed in the laboratory. Example results are presented from selected research studies that have validated their performance and then used to quantify tsunami effects. Having described each of the first, second, and third generation Tsunami Simulators, the paper discusses how to calibrate the wave generation control to model tsunami with model periods 20–240 s duration (equivalent to 2–20 min duration in prototype at 1:50 scale), many of which are far too long to “fit into the test flume.” The evolution of a composite approach to wave calibration is described with examples from second and third generation devices, demonstrated by successful simulation of both the 2004 Boxing Day, and the 2011 Great Eastern Japan (Tohoku) Tsunami at 1:50 scale.

Type: Article
Title: Evolution of Pneumatic Tsunami Simulators–From Concept to Proven Experimental Technique
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fbuil.2021.674659
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3389/fbuil.2021.674659
Language: English
Additional information: © 2021 Chandler, Allsop, Robinson and Rossetto. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
Keywords: tsunami, physical modeling, wavemaker, tsunami simulator, N-waves
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Civil, Environ and Geomatic Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10134824
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