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Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Response to Multiple Grip Forces in Multiple Sclerosis: Going Beyond the Main Effect of Movement in Brodmann Area 4a and 4p

Alahmadi, AAS; Pardini, M; Samson, RS; D'Angelo, E; Friston, KJ; Toosy, AT; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, CAM; (2021) Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Response to Multiple Grip Forces in Multiple Sclerosis: Going Beyond the Main Effect of Movement in Brodmann Area 4a and 4p. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 15 , Article 616028. 10.3389/fncel.2021.616028. Green open access

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Abstract

This study highlights the importance of looking beyond the main effect of movement to study alterations in functional response in the presence of central nervous system pathologies such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Data show that MS selectively affects regional BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependent) responses to variable grip forces (GF). It is known that the anterior and posterior BA 4 areas (BA 4a and BA 4p) are anatomically and functionally distinct. It has also been shown in healthy volunteers that there are linear (first order, typical of BA 4a) and nonlinear (second to fourth order, typical of BA 4p) BOLD responses to different levels of GF applied during a dynamic motor paradigm. After modeling the BOLD response with a polynomial expansion of the applied GFs, the particular case of BA 4a and BA 4p were investigated in healthy volunteers (HV) and MS subjects. The main effect of movement (zeroth order) analysis showed that the BOLD signal is greater in MS compared with healthy volunteers within both BA 4 subregions. At higher order, BOLD-GF responses were similar in BA 4a but showed a marked alteration in BA 4p of MS subjects, with those with greatest disability showing the greatest deviations from the healthy response profile. Therefore, the different behaviors in HV and MS could only be uncovered through a polynomial analysis looking beyond the main effect of movement into the two BA 4 subregions. Future studies will investigate the source of this pathophysiology, combining the present fMRI paradigm with blood perfusion and nonlinear neuronal response analysis.

Type: Article
Title: Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Response to Multiple Grip Forces in Multiple Sclerosis: Going Beyond the Main Effect of Movement in Brodmann Area 4a and 4p
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2021.616028
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2021.616028
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2021 Alahmadi, Pardini, Samson, D’Angelo, Friston, Toosy and Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Keywords: BA 4p, BA 4a, fMRI, force, multiple sclerosis
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Imaging Neuroscience
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neuroinflammation
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10128067
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