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Imaging the Phase Transformation in Single Particles of the Lithium Titanate Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Assefa, TA; Suzana, AF; Wu, L; Koch, RJ; Li, L; Cha, W; Harder, RJ; ... Robinson, IK; + view all (2021) Imaging the Phase Transformation in Single Particles of the Lithium Titanate Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries. ACS Applied Energy Materials , 4 (1) pp. 111-118. 10.1021/acsaem.0c02010. Green open access

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Abstract

Lithium uptake and release in lithium titanate (LTO) anode materials during a discharge and charge cycle is one of the fundamental processes of a lithium-ion battery (LIB), still not fully understood at the microscopic level. During the discharge cycle, LTO undergoes a phase transformation between Li4Ti5O12 and Li7Ti5O12 states within a cubic crystal lattice. To reveal the details of the microscopic mechanism, it is necessary to track the sequence of phase transformations at different discharge/charge states under operating conditions. Here, we use in situ Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments to examine the lithium insertion-induced materials phase transformation within a single LTO particle and a bulk battery analogue, respectively. BCDI analysis from (111) Bragg peak shows the two-phase transformation manifesting as a distinct image phase modulation within a single LTO nanoparticle occurring in the middle of the discharge region then subsiding toward the end of the discharge cycle. We observe the biggest phase variation at the two-phase stage, indicating the formation of phase domains of 200 nm in size during the discharge process. We also observe a lattice contraction of >0.2% in a single LTO nanoparticle at the (400) Bragg peak measurement, larger than that in the corresponding bulk material. Our observation of this phase transformation at a single-particle level has implications for the understanding of the microscopic/mesoscale picture of the phase transformation in anode and cathode LIBs materials.

Type: Article
Title: Imaging the Phase Transformation in Single Particles of the Lithium Titanate Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.0c02010
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.0c02010
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Non-Commercial No Derivative Works (CC-BY-NC-ND) Attribution License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article, and creation of adaptations, all for non-commercial purposes.
Keywords: coherent diffraction imaging, image phase variation, displacement field, battery material, lithium titanate anode
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > London Centre for Nanotechnology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10121546
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