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Diffusion and perfusion MRI and applications in cerebral ischaemia

Calamante, Fernando; (2000) Diffusion and perfusion MRI and applications in cerebral ischaemia. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

Two MRI techniques, namely diffusion and perfusion imaging, are becoming increasingly used for evaluation of the pathophysiology of stroke. This work describes the use of these techniques, together with more conventional MRI modalities (such as T1, and T2 imaging) in the investigation of cerebral ischaemia. The work was performed both in a paediatric population in a whole-body clinical MR system (1.5 T) and in an animal model of focal ischaemia at high magnetic field strength (8.5 T). For the paediatric studies, a single shot echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence was developed to enable the on-line calculation of maps of the trace of the diffusion tensor. In the process of this development, it was necessary to address two different imaging artefacts in these maps: eddy current induced image shifts, and residual Nyquist ghost artefacts. Perfusion imaging was implemented using an EPI sequence to follow the passage through the brain of a bolus of a paramagnetic contrast agent. Computer simulations were performed to evaluate the limitations of this technique in the quantification of cerebral blood flow when delay in the arrival and dispersion of the bolus of contrast agent are not accounted for. These MRI techniques were applied to paediatric patients to identify acute ischaemic events, as well as to differentiate between multiple acute events, or between acute and chronic events. Furthermore, the diffusion and perfusion findings were shown to contribute significantly to the management of patients with high risk of stroke, and in the evaluation of treatment outcome. In the animal experiments, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in rats to investigate longitudinally the acute MRI changes (first 4-6 hours) following an ischaemic event. This longitudinal analysis contributed to the understanding of the evolution of the ischaemic lesion. Furthermore, the findings allowed the acute identification of tissue 'at risk' of infarction.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: Diffusion and perfusion MRI and applications in cerebral ischaemia
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Thesis digitised by ProQuest.
Keywords: Biological sciences; Cerebral ischemia
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10120897
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