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Small Vessel Disease and Ischemic Stroke Risk During Anticoagulation for Atrial Fibrillation After Cerebral Ischemia

Du, H; Wilson, D; Ambler, G; Banerjee, G; Shakeshaft, C; Cohen, H; Yousry, T; ... Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke (CROMIS-2) Collabora, .; + view all (2021) Small Vessel Disease and Ischemic Stroke Risk During Anticoagulation for Atrial Fibrillation After Cerebral Ischemia. Stroke , 52 (1) pp. 91-99. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029474. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The causes of recurrent ischemic stroke despite anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation are uncertain but might include small vessel occlusion. We investigated whether magnetic resonance imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) are associated with ischemic stroke risk during follow-up in patients anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation after recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective multicenter inception cohort study of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation (CROMIS-2 [Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke Study]). We rated markers of SVD on baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging: basal ganglia perivascular spaces (number ≥11); cerebral microbleeds (number ≥1); lacunes (number ≥1); and white matter hyperintensities (periventricular Fazekas grade 3 or deep white matter Fazekas grade ≥2). We investigated the associations of SVD presence (defined as presence of ≥1 SVD marker) and severity (composite SVD score) with the risk of ischemic stroke during follow-up using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for congestive heart failure, hypertension, age >75, diabetes, stroke, vascular disease, age 65-74, female score. RESULTS: We included 1419 patients (mean age: 75.8 years [SD, 10.4]; 42.1% female). The ischemic stroke rate during follow-up in patients with any SVD was 2.20 per 100-patient years (95% CI, 1.60-3.02), compared with 0.98 per 100 patient-years (95% CI, 0.59-1.62) in those without SVD (P=0.008). After adjusting for congestive heart failure, hypertension, age >75, diabetes, stroke, vascular disease, age 65-74, female score, SVD presence remained significantly associated with ischemic stroke during follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.01-3.53]; P=0.046); the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke increased with SVD score (hazard ratio per point increase, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.04-1.70]; P=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: In patients anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, magnetic resonance imaging markers of SVD are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke during follow-up; improved stroke prevention treatments are required in this population. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02513316.

Type: Article
Title: Small Vessel Disease and Ischemic Stroke Risk During Anticoagulation for Atrial Fibrillation After Cerebral Ischemia
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029474
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029474
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.
Keywords: anticoagulation, atrial fibrillation, brain, ischemic attack, transient, white matter
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Institute of Prion Diseases
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Brain Repair and Rehabilitation
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Department of Neuromuscular Diseases
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute > Research Department of Haematology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology > MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Statistical Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10117289
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