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Cardiac multi-scale investigation of the right and left ventricle ex vivo: a review

Dejea, H; Bonnin, A; Cook, AC; Garcia-Canadilla, P; (2020) Cardiac multi-scale investigation of the right and left ventricle ex vivo: a review. Cardiovascular Diagnosis & Therapy , 10 (5) pp. 1701-1717. 10.21037/cdt-20-269. Green open access

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Abstract

The heart is a complex multi-scale system composed of components integrated at the subcellular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. The myocytes, the contractile elements of the heart, form a complex three-dimensional (3D) network which enables propagation of the electrical signal that triggers the contraction to efficiently pump blood towards the whole body. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), a major cause of mortality in developed countries, often lead to cardiovascular remodeling affecting cardiac structure and function at all scales, from myocytes and their surrounding collagen matrix to the 3D organization of the whole heart. As yet, there is no consensus as to how the myocytes are arranged and packed within their connective tissue matrix, nor how best to image them at multiple scales. Cardiovascular imaging is routinely used to investigate cardiac structure and function as well as for the evaluation of cardiac remodeling in CVDs. For a complete understanding of the relationship between structural remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in CVDs, multi-scale imaging approaches are necessary to achieve a detailed description of ventricular architecture along with cardiac function. In this context, ventricular architecture has been extensively studied using a wide variety of imaging techniques: ultrasound (US), optical coherence tomography (OCT), microscopy (confocal, episcopic, light sheet, polarized light), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and, more recently, synchrotron X-ray phase contrast imaging (SR X-PCI). Each of these techniques have their own set of strengths and weaknesses, relating to sample size, preparation, resolution, 2D/3D capabilities, use of contrast agents and possibility of performing together with in vivo studies. Therefore, the combination of different imaging techniques to investigate the same sample, thus taking advantage of the strengths of each method, could help us to extract the maximum information about ventricular architecture and function. In this review, we provide an overview of available and emerging cardiovascular imaging techniques for assessing myocardial architecture ex vivo and discuss their utility in being able to quantify cardiac remodeling, in CVDs, from myocyte to whole organ.

Type: Article
Title: Cardiac multi-scale investigation of the right and left ventricle ex vivo: a review
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.21037/cdt-20-269
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.21037/cdt-20-269
Language: English
Additional information: This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits the non-commercial replication and distribution of the article with the strict proviso that no changes or edits are made and the original work is properly cited (including links to both the formal publication through the relevant DOI and the license). See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
Keywords: Ventricular architecture; myocardium; cardiomyocytes; cardiovascular imaging; multi-scale imaging
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Childrens Cardiovascular Disease
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10114598
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