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Effective interventions for potentially modifiable risk factors for late-onset dementia: a costs and cost-effectiveness modelling study

Mukadam, N; Anderson, R; Knapp, M; Wittenberg, R; Karagiannidou, M; Costafreda, SG; Tutton, M; ... Livingston, G; + view all (2020) Effective interventions for potentially modifiable risk factors for late-onset dementia: a costs and cost-effectiveness modelling study. The Lancet Healthy Longevity , 1 (1) e13-e20. 10.1016/s2666-7568(20)30004-0. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: The potential economic value of interventions to prevent late-onset dementia is unknown. We modelled this for potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia. METHODS: For this modelling study, we searched PubMed and Web of Science from inception to March 12, 2020, and included interventions that: successfully targeted any of nine prespecified potentially modifiable risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hearing loss, obesity, physical inactivity, social isolation, depression, cigarette smoking, and less childhood education); had robust evidence that the intervention improved risk or risk behaviour; and are feasible to enact in an adult population. We established when in the life course each intervention would be delivered. We calculated dementia incidence reduction from annual incidence of dementia in people with each risk factor, and population attributable fraction for each risk, corrected for risk factor clustering, and how effectively the intervention controls the risk factor. We calculated the discounted value of lifetime health gain and effect on cost (including NHS, social care and carer costs) per person eligible for treatment. We estimated annual total expenditure on the fully operational intervention programme in England. FINDINGS: We found effective interventions for hypertension, smoking cessation, diabetes prevention, and hearing loss. Treatments for stopping smoking and provision of hearing aids reduced cost. Treatment of hypertension was cost-effective by reference to standard UK thresholds. The three interventions when fully implemented would save £1·863 billion annually in England, reduce dementia prevalence by 8·5%, and produce quality-adjusted life-year gains. The intervention for diabetes was unlikely to be cost-effective in terms of effect on dementia alone. INTERPRETATION: There is a strong case for implementing the three effective interventions on grounds of cost-effectiveness and quality-of-life gains, as well as for improvements in general health. The interventions have the potential to remain cost-saving or cost-effective even with variations in dementia incidence and costs and effectiveness of interventions.

Type: Article
Title: Effective interventions for potentially modifiable risk factors for late-onset dementia: a costs and cost-effectiveness modelling study
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/s2666-7568(20)30004-0
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2666-7568(20)30004-0
Language: English
Additional information: © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. under a Creative Commons license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry > Mental Health of Older People
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10113163
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