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Influence of unsaturation of hydrocarbons on the characteristics and carcinogenicity of soot particles

Dandajeh, HA; Ladommatos, N; Hellier, P; (2020) Influence of unsaturation of hydrocarbons on the characteristics and carcinogenicity of soot particles. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis , 151 , Article 104900. 10.1016/j.jaap.2020.104900. Green open access

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Abstract

This paper concerns the effect of unsaturation of hydrocarbons (single, double, and triple bonds) on soot particle characteristics (mass, number, and size) and on the carcinogenicity of soot particles. The soot particles were produced from oxygen-free pyrolysis of five hydrocarbons, namely: propane, propylene, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene. The characteristics of soot particles were measured with the aid of a differential mobility spectrometer (Cambustion-DMS-500) and measurement of soot mass concentration was confirmed using gravimetric filter measurements. The soot particle carcinogenicity was estimated from the emission quantities of total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity equivalent factor (TEF) of each PAH. Oxygen-free pyrolysis of the hydrocarbon fuels was conducted in a laminar tube reactor within the temperature range of 1050 –1350oC at a constant nitrogen flow rate of 20 L/min and constant fuel flow rate of 1% (vol) on carbon-1 basis. The experimental results showed that increasing unsaturation of fuels from single to double and to triple bonds increased the mass concentration, particle size, number concentration, and carcinogenicity of soot particle notably at the initial temperature of 1050 oC. Increase in the pyrolysis temperature of the tube reactor from 1050 – 1350oC, increased the mass concentration and sizes of the soot particle while the number concentration and carcinogenicity of the soot particle decreased. There was a positive correlation between the soot particle number and the corresponding soot particle carcinogenicity, while a negative correlation was observed between the soot particle mass and size with soot particle carcinogenicity regardless of the pyrolysis temperature examined. The potential implication of these observations is that, low-temperature combustion (LTC) applications, aimed at reducing emissions of soot and NOx, could produce higher soot particle number concentration of higher carcinogenicity.

Type: Article
Title: Influence of unsaturation of hydrocarbons on the characteristics and carcinogenicity of soot particles
Location: Netherlands
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2020.104900
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2020.104900
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: PAHs, soot carcinogenicity, soot characteristics, soot particles, unsaturation
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Mechanical Engineering
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10108952
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