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Linking electronic health records to evaluate infection rates in neonatal units in England

Fraser, Caroline Isabel; (2020) Linking electronic health records to evaluate infection rates in neonatal units in England. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) in babies admitted to neonatal units (NNUs) is associated with mortality and morbidity. There is no single data source to measure national BSI rates in NNUs in England. Methods: I created a system for monitoring BSI rates in NNUs in England by linking electronic health records (the National Neonatal Research Database; NNRD) for babies in 110 NNUs to national infection surveillance data between March 2010 and June 2017. I evaluated how risk-adjusted BSI rates varied by regional neonatal network and over time using multilevel Poisson regression. I used the system to support evaluations of two interventions to prevent BSI. First, I assessed change in BSI rates following the adoption of peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) care bundles using interrupted time series regression. Second, I evaluated the generalisability and applicability of BSI rates in a large pragmatic trial of antimicrobial-impregnated PICCs (the PREVAIL trial) to BSI rates in all babies receiving PICCs in NNUs. Finally, I estimated the proportion of all BSI in NNUs that occurred while a PICC was present to determine the contribution of PICCs to overall BSI. Results: I linked 3.3% of babies in NNUs (11,247 / 340,146) to at least one BSI which improved ascertainment compared to using NNRD alone (2.2%), but underestimated rates due to incomplete identifiers. Risk-adjusted BSI rates were similar across networks, but varied between NNUs within networks. From 2010 to 2017, risk-adjusted BSI rates per 1000 days of intensive and high dependency care decreased by 2.59% (95% CI: -4.23%, -0.93%) annually; the rate in 2017 was 1.52 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.04). Risk-adjusted rates of BSI per 100 admissions decreased by 3.39% (95% CI: -5.00%, -1.76%) annually; the rate in 2017 was 1.63 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.15). BSI per 1000 central line days remained stable at 2.25 (95% CI: 2.14, 2.34). I found no evidence of a change in BSI rates following adoption of PICC care bundles. BSI rates from the PREVAIL trial were generalisable and applicable to other babies receiving PICCs in NNUs. Of all BSI in NNUs, 46% occurred while a PICC was in situ. Conclusions: Accurate linkage of NNU electronic health records to infection surveillance data enables evaluation of risk-adjusted BSI rates for nearly all NNUs in England. These data can be used to evaluate interventions to reduce BSI among for all babies in NNUs, not only those with PICCs.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: Linking electronic health records to evaluate infection rates in neonatal units in England
Event: UCL (University College London)
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2020. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Population, Policy and Practice Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10105578
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