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Variability and effectiveness of comparator group interventions in smoking cessation trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Black, N; Eisma, MC; Viechtbauer, W; Johnston, M; West, R; Hartmann-Boyce, J; Michie, S; (2020) Variability and effectiveness of comparator group interventions in smoking cessation trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction 10.1111/add.14969. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

AIMS To examine variability and effectiveness of interventions provided to comparator (control) groups in smoking cessation trials. METHODS Systematic review with meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation, with or without stop‐smoking medication. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register for RCTs with objective outcomes measured at ≥ 6 months. Study authors were contacted to obtain comprehensive descriptions of their comparator interventions. Meta‐regression analyses examined the relationships of smoking cessation rates with stop‐smoking medication and behavior change techniques. RESULTS One hundred and four of 142 eligible comparator groups (n = 23 706) had complete data and were included in analyses. There was considerable variability in the number of behavior change techniques delivered [mean = 15.97, standard deviation (SD) = 13.54, range = 0–45] and the provision of smoking cessation medication (43% of groups received medication) throughout and within categories of comparator groups (e.g. usual care, brief advice). Higher smoking cessation rates were predicted by provision of medication [B = 0.334, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.030–0.638, P = 0.031] and number of behavior change techniques included (B = 0.020, 95% CI = 0.008–0.032, P < 0.001). Modelled cessation rates in comparator groups that received the most intensive support were 15 percentage points higher than those that received the least (23 versus 8%). CONCLUSIONS Interventions delivered to comparator groups in smoking cessation randomized controlled trials vary considerably in content, and cessation rates are strongly predicted by stop‐smoking medication and number of behavior change techniques delivered.

Type: Article
Title: Variability and effectiveness of comparator group interventions in smoking cessation trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/add.14969
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14969
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: Behavior change techniques, comparator group, control group, meta-analysis, meta-regression, smoking cessation, systematic review.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences > Clinical, Edu and Hlth Psychology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Behavioural Science and Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10092694
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