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Elevation and Deformation Extraction from TomoSAR

Feng, Lang; (2020) Elevation and Deformation Extraction from TomoSAR. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London). Green open access

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3D SAR tomography (TomoSAR) and 4D SAR differential tomography (Diff-TomoSAR) exploit multi-baseline SAR data stacks to provide an essential innovation of SAR Interferometry for many applications, sensing complex scenes with multiple scatterers mapped into the same SAR pixel cell. However, these are still influenced by DEM uncertainty, temporal decorrelation, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion and height blurring. In this thesis, these techniques are explored. As part of this exploration, the systematic procedures for DEM generation, DEM quality assessment, DEM quality improvement and DEM applications are first studied. Besides, this thesis focuses on the whole cycle of systematic methods for 3D & 4D TomoSAR imaging for height and deformation retrieval, from the problem formation phase, through the development of methods to testing on real SAR data. After DEM generation introduction from spaceborne bistatic InSAR (TanDEM-X) and airborne photogrammetry (Bluesky), a new DEM co-registration method with line feature validation (river network line, ridgeline, valley line, crater boundary feature and so on) is developed and demonstrated to assist the study of a wide area DEM data quality. This DEM co-registration method aligns two DEMs irrespective of the linear distortion model, which improves the quality of DEM vertical comparison accuracy significantly and is suitable and helpful for DEM quality assessment. A systematic TomoSAR algorithm and method have been established, tested, analysed and demonstrated for various applications (urban buildings, bridges, dams) to achieve better 3D & 4D tomographic SAR imaging results. These include applying Cosmo-Skymed X band single-polarisation data over the Zipingpu dam, Dujiangyan, Sichuan, China, to map topography; and using ALOS L band data in the San Francisco Bay region to map urban building and bridge. A new ionospheric correction method based on the tile method employing IGS TEC data, a split-spectrum and an ionospheric model via least squares are developed to correct ionospheric distortion to improve the accuracy of 3D & 4D tomographic SAR imaging. Meanwhile, a pixel by pixel orbit baseline estimation method is developed to address the research gaps of baseline estimation for 3D & 4D spaceborne SAR tomography imaging. Moreover, a SAR tomography imaging algorithm and a differential tomography four-dimensional SAR imaging algorithm based on compressive sensing, SAR interferometry phase (InSAR) calibration reference to DEM with DEM error correction, a new phase error calibration and compensation algorithm, based on PS, SVD, PGA, weighted least squares and minimum entropy, are developed to obtain accurate 3D & 4D tomographic SAR imaging results. The new baseline estimation method and consequent TomoSAR processing results showed that an accurate baseline estimation is essential to build up the TomoSAR model. After baseline estimation, phase calibration experiments (via FFT and Capon method) indicate that a phase calibration step is indispensable for TomoSAR imaging, which eventually influences the inversion results. A super-resolution reconstruction CS based study demonstrates X band data with the CS method does not fit for forest reconstruction but works for reconstruction of large civil engineering structures such as dams and urban buildings. Meanwhile, the L band data with FFT, Capon and the CS method are shown to work for the reconstruction of large manmade structures (such as bridges) and urban buildings.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: Elevation and Deformation Extraction from TomoSAR
Event: UCL (University College London)
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2020. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10091451
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