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Sex discrimination and mental health in women: A prospective analysis

Hackett, RA; Steptoe, A; Jackson, SE; (2019) Sex discrimination and mental health in women: A prospective analysis. Health Psychology 10.1037/hea0000796. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional and prospective associations between perceived sex discrimination and health and well-being in a sample from the United Kingdom. Method: Data were from 2,956 women aged ≥16 years who participated in the U.K. Household Longitudinal Study. Perceived discrimination was reported in 2009–2010. Psychological distress, mental functioning, life satisfaction, and self-rated health were assessed in 2009–2010 and 2013–2014. Depression was assessed in 2009 and 2010. Linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, income, education, and ethnicity. Prospective analyses adjusted for baseline well-being. Results: Perceived sex discrimination was reported by 576 (19.5%) participants. Younger, wealthier, better educated, White women reported more discrimination (p < .001). Cross-sectionally, perceived discrimination was associated with increased depression (odds ratio [OR] = 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI; 2.10, 4.79]) psychological distress (B = 1.26, 95% CI [0.95, 1.56]), poorer mental functioning (B = −5.39, 95% CI [−6.33, −4.46]), lower life satisfaction (B = −0.52, 95% CI [−0.69, −0.36]), and greater odds of poor self-rated health (OR = 1.89, 95% CI [1.47, 2.41]). Prospectively, perceived sex discrimination was associated with increased psychological distress (B = 0.66, 95% CI [0.07, 1.24]), poorer mental functioning (B = −1.37, 95% CI [−2.71, –0.03]), and lower life satisfaction (B = −0.32, 95% CI [−0.58, −0.05]) over 4-year follow-up. Conclusions: Women who perceive that they have been discriminated against based on their sex report poorer mental health and well-being than those who do not perceive discrimination. These results provide cross-sectional and prospective evidence of associations between perceived sex discrimination and mental well-being outcomes in U.K. women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)

Type: Article
Title: Sex discrimination and mental health in women: A prospective analysis
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1037/hea0000796
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000796
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Behavioural Science and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10081641
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