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An Experimental Group A Streptococcus Vaccine That Reduces Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in a Nonhuman Primate Model

Rivera-Hernandez, T; Carnathan, DG; Jones, S; Cork, AJ; Davies, MR; Moyle, PM; Toth, I; ... Walker, MJ; + view all (2019) An Experimental Group A Streptococcus Vaccine That Reduces Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in a Nonhuman Primate Model. MBio , 10 (2) , Article e00693-19. 10.1128/mBio.00693-19. Green open access

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Abstract

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections account for an estimated 500,000 deaths every year. This bacterial pathogen is responsible for a variety of mild and life-threatening infections and the triggering of chronic autoimmune sequelae. Pharyngitis caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS), but not asymptomatic GAS carriage, is a prerequisite for acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Repeated bouts of ARF may trigger rheumatic heart disease (RHD), a major cause of heart failure and stroke accounting for 275,000 deaths annually. A vaccine that prevents pharyngitis would markedly reduce morbidity and mortality from ARF and RHD. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) have been utilized to model GAS diseases, and experimentally infected rhesus macaques develop pharyngitis. Here we use an NHP model of GAS pharyngitis to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental vaccine, Combo5 (arginine deiminase [ADI], C5a peptidase [SCPA], streptolysin O [SLO], interleukin-8 [IL-8] protease [SpyCEP], and trigger factor [TF]), specifically designed to exclude GAS components potentially linked to autoimmune complications. Antibody responses against all Combo5 antigens were detected in NHP serum, and immunized NHPs showed a reduction in pharyngitis and tonsillitis compared to controls. Our work establishes the NHP model as a gold standard for the assessment of GAS vaccines.IMPORTANCE GAS-related diseases disproportionally affect disadvantaged populations (e.g., indigenous populations), and development of a vaccine has been neglected. A recent strong advocacy campaign driven by the World Health Organization and the International Vaccine Institute has highlighted the urgent need for a GAS vaccine. One significant obstacle in GAS vaccine development is the lack of a widely used animal model to assess vaccine efficacy. Researchers in the field use a wide range of murine models of infection and in vitro assays, sometimes yielding conflicting results. Here we present the nonhuman primate pharyngeal infection model as a tool to assess vaccine-induced protection against colonization and clinical symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis. We have tested the efficacy of an experimental vaccine candidate with promising results. We believe that the utilization of this valuable tool by the GAS vaccine research community could significantly accelerate the realization of a safe and effective GAS vaccine for humans.

Type: Article
Title: An Experimental Group A Streptococcus Vaccine That Reduces Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in a Nonhuman Primate Model
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00693-19
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00693-19
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: Streptococcus pyogenes, group A Streptococcus, immunization, nonhuman primates
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10073840
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