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Polymerization kinetics stability, volumetric changes, apatite precipitation, strontium release and fatigue of novel bone composites for vertebroplasty

Panpisut, P; Khan, MA; Main, K; Arshad, M; Xia, W; Petridis, H; Young, AM; (2019) Polymerization kinetics stability, volumetric changes, apatite precipitation, strontium release and fatigue of novel bone composites for vertebroplasty. PLoS One , 14 (3) , Article e0207965. 10.1371/journal.pone.0207965. Green open access

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Abstract

PURPOSE: The aim was to determine effects of diluent monomer and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) on polymerization kinetics and volumetric stability, apatite precipitation, strontium release and fatigue of novel dual-paste composites for vertebroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polypropylene (PPGDMA) or triethylene (TEGDMA) glycol dimethacrylates (25 wt%) diluents were combined with urethane dimethacrylate (70 wt%) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (5 wt%). 70 wt% filler containing glass particles, glass fibers (20 wt%) and polylysine (5 wt%) was added. Benzoyl peroxide and MCPM (10 or 20 wt%) or N-tolyglycine glycidyl methacrylate and tristrontium phosphate (15 wt%) were included to give initiator or activator pastes. Commercial PMMA (Simplex) and bone composite (Cortoss) were used for comparison. ATR-FTIR was used to determine thermal activated polymerization kinetics of initiator pastes at 50-80°C. Paste stability, following storage at 4-37°C, was assessed visually or through mixed paste polymerization kinetics at 25°C. Polymerization shrinkage and heat generation were calculated from final monomer conversions. Subsequent expansion and surface apatite precipitation in simulated body fluid (SBF) were assessed gravimetrically and via SEM. Strontium release into water was assessed using ICP-MS. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS) and fatigue properties were determined at 37°C after 4 weeks in SBF. RESULTS: Polymerization profiles all exhibited an inhibition time before polymerization as predicted by free radical polymerization mechanisms. Initiator paste inhibition times and maximum reaction rates were described well by Arrhenius plots. Plot extrapolation, however, underestimated lower temperature paste stability. Replacement of TEGDMA by PPGDMA, enhanced paste stability, final monomer conversion, water-sorption induced expansion and strontium release but reduced polymerization shrinkage and heat generation. Increasing MCPM level enhanced volume expansion, surface apatite precipitation and strontium release. Although the experimental composite flexural strengths were lower compared to those of commercially available Simplex, the extrapolated low load fatigue lives of all materials were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Increased inhibition times at high temperature give longer predicted shelf-life whilst stability of mixed paste inhibition times is important for consistent clinical application. Increased volumetric stability, strontium release and apatite formation should encourage bone integration. Replacing TEGDMA by PPGDMA and increasing MCPM could therefore increase suitability of the above novel bone composites for vertebroplasty. Long fatigue lives of the composites may also ensure long-term durability of the materials.

Type: Article
Title: Polymerization kinetics stability, volumetric changes, apatite precipitation, strontium release and fatigue of novel bone composites for vertebroplasty
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207965
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207965
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute > Biomaterials and Tissue Eng
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute > Restorative Dental Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10070817
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