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A compact low-power EM energy harvester using electrically small loop resonator

Aljaloud, Khaled A; (2019) A compact low-power EM energy harvester using electrically small loop resonator. Doctoral thesis (Ph.D), UCL (University College London).

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Abstract

Electromagnetic (EM) energy harvester is a combination of an antenna or EM collector and a rectifier circuit. It is a concept that has seen applications in a variety of areas, as its essential purpose is to harvest and reuse the ambient microwave power. Compact system solutions for EM energy harvesting are presented and investigated in this work. The objective of this work is to reduce the size of the EM harvesters and simplify the fabrication process. A new approach to design a compact EM energy harvester which based on the concept of an electrically small square-loop collector, is proposed. Coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines are utilized to build the half-wave rectifier. The input impedance of the rectifier is designed to be equaled to the conjugate of the impedance of the square-loop collector at the operating frequency. This method not only reduces the mismatch loss, but also reduces the overall size and simplifies the complexity of the system. The efficiency and the DC output power of the design are examined with respect to the power density on the EM harvester surface. Measurements demonstrate that the system is efficient to harvest EM energy in a low power density environment and generate a reasonable DC power. The proposed EM energy harvester is compact, easy to fabricate and integrate into other devices, and suitable for different energy harvesting applications. The mechanical flexibility of the proposed compact EM energy harvester is also discussed. The EM energy harvester is redesigned and fabricated on a thin flexible substrate. The performances are measured with respect to frequency in both planar and curvature configurations. The results show that the operating frequencies for both planar and curvature configurations do not vary. Furthermore, the output power of the two configurations at the operating frequency are very close to each other. The proposed flexible EM energy harvester requires a simpler fabrication process and a smaller size when compared to the previous work reported in the literature for EM energy harvesting at 2.45 GHz. A single element of EM energy harvester is insufficient for powering common devices. Therefore, two low-cost techniques are proposed and used to increase the capability of the system. In the first method, a parabolic reflector is designed, fabricated and placed behind the system to reflect the beam of parallel rays and concentrates the radiation power at the harvester surface. An alternate technique to boost the output DC power is based on using multi-square-loop collectors. Instead of using a rectifier circuit for each loop collector, multi collectors are combined before feeding into a single rectifier circuit. The experimental results show that these two techniques have significant improvement in the DC output power. The parabolic reflector technique can improve the DC output power by 35%, while in the case of the multi collectors technique, 4 times higher DC output power can be achieved.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Qualification: Ph.D
Title: A compact low-power EM energy harvester using electrically small loop resonator
Event: UCL(University College London)
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2019. Original content in this thesis is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Any third-party copyright material present remains the property of its respective owner(s) and is licensed under its existing terms. Access may initially be restricted at the author’s request.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Electronic and Electrical Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10068931
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