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Risk of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorders by migrant status, region of origin, and age-at-migration: a national cohort study of 1.8 million people

Dykxhoorn, J; Hollander, A-C; Lewis, G; Magnusson, C; Dalman, C; Kirkbride, JB; (2018) Risk of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorders by migrant status, region of origin, and age-at-migration: a national cohort study of 1.8 million people. Psychological Medicine 10.1017/S0033291718003227. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether the risk of various psychotic disorders and non-psychotic bipolar disorder (including mania) varied by migrant status, a region of origin, or age-at-migration, hypothesizing that risk would only be elevated for psychotic disorders. METHODS: We established a prospective cohort of 1 796 257 Swedish residents born between 1982 and 1996, followed from their 15th birthday, or immigration to Sweden after age 15, until diagnosis, emigration, death, or end of 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to model hazard ratios by migration-related factors, adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: All psychotic disorders were elevated among migrants and their children compared with Swedish-born individuals, including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]migrants: 2.20, 95% CI 1.96-2.47; aHRchildren : 2.00, 95% CI 1.79-2.25), affective psychotic disorders (aHRmigrant1.42, 95% CI 1.25-1.63; aHRchildren: 1.22 95% CI 1.07-1.40), and other non-affective psychotic disorders (aHRmigrant: 1.97, 95% CI 1.81-2.14; aHRchildren: 1.68, 95% CI 1.54-1.83). For all psychotic disorders, risks were generally highest in migrants from Africa (i.e. aHRschizophrenia: 5.24, 95% CI 4.26-6.45) and elevated at most ages-of-migration. By contrast, risk of non-psychotic bipolar disorders was lower for migrants (aHR: 0.58, 95% CI 0.52-0.64) overall, and across all ages-of-migration except infancy (aHR: 1.20; 95% CI 1.01-1.42), while risk for their children was similar to the Swedish-born population (aHR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.93-1.08). CONCLUSIONS: Increased risk of psychiatric disorders associated with migration and minority status may be specific to psychotic disorders, with exact risk dependent on the region of origin.

Type: Article
Title: Risk of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorders by migrant status, region of origin, and age-at-migration: a national cohort study of 1.8 million people
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1017/S0033291718003227
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718003227
Language: English
Additional information: This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Keywords: Bipolar disorder, epidemiology, mania, migration, psychotic disorders, schizophrenia
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Primary Care and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10064506
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