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Investigation of high-pressure planetary ices by cryo-recovery. I. An apparatus for X-ray powder diffraction from 40 to 315 K, allowing 'cold loading' of samples

Wood, IG; Fortes, AD; Dobson, DP; Wang, W; Pajdzik, L; Cosier, J; (2018) Investigation of high-pressure planetary ices by cryo-recovery. I. An apparatus for X-ray powder diffraction from 40 to 315 K, allowing 'cold loading' of samples. Journal of Applied Crystallography , 51 pp. 685-691. 10.1107/S1600576718003965. Green open access

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Investigation of high-pressure planetary ices by cryo-recovery. I. An apparatus for X-ray powder diffraction from 40 to 315 K, allowing 'cold loading' of samples.pdf - Published version

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Abstract

A low-temperature stage for X-ray powder diffraction in Bragg–Brentano reflection geometry is described. The temperature range covered is 40–315 K, with a temperature stability at the sample within +-0.1 K of the set point. The stage operates by means of a Gifford–McMahon (GM) closed-cycle He refrigerator; it requires no refrigerants and so can run for an extended period (in practice at least 5 d) without intervention by the user. The sample is cooled both by thermal conduction through the metal sample holder and by the presence of He exchange gas, at ambient pressure, within the sample chamber; the consumption of He gas is extremely low, being only 0.1 l min-1 during normal operation. Aunique feature of this cold stage is that samples may be introduced into (and removed from) the stage at any temperature in the range 80–300 K, and thus materials which are not stable at room temperature, such as highpressure phases that are recoverable to ambient pressure after quenching to liquid nitrogen temperatures, can be readily examined. A further advantage of this arrangement is that, by enabling the use of pre-cooled samples, it greatly reduces the turnaround time when making measurements on a series of specimens at low temperature.

Type: Article
Title: Investigation of high-pressure planetary ices by cryo-recovery. I. An apparatus for X-ray powder diffraction from 40 to 315 K, allowing 'cold loading' of samples
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1107/S1600576718003965
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600576718003965
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: Science & Technology, Physical Sciences, Chemistry, Multidisciplinary, Crystallography, Chemistry, X-ray powder diffraction, low temperatures, cold loading, planetary ices, THERMAL-EXPANSION, CATION SUBSTITUTION, AMMONIA DIHYDRATE, CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Earth Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10052690
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