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Occupational and educational inequalities in exit from employment at older ages: evidence from seven prospective cohorts

Carr, E; Fleischmann, M; Goldberg, M; Kuh, D; Murray, E; Stafford, M; Stansfeld, S; ... Head, J; + view all (2018) Occupational and educational inequalities in exit from employment at older ages: evidence from seven prospective cohorts. Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 75 (5) pp. 369-377. 10.1136/oemed-2017-104619. Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Past studies have identified socioeconomic inequalities in the timing and route of labour market exit at older ages. However, few studies have compared these trends cross-nationally and existing evidence focuses on specific institutional outcomes (such as disability pension and sickness absence) in Nordic countries. We examined differences by education level and occupational grade in the risks of work exit and health-related work exit. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal data were drawn from seven studies (n=99 164). Participants were in paid work at least once around age 50. Labour market exit was derived based on reductions in working hours, changes in self-reported employment status or from administrative records. Health-related exit was ascertained by receipt of health-related benefit or pension or from the reported reason for stopping work. Cox regression models were estimated for each study, adjusted for baseline self-rated health and birth cohort. RESULTS: There were 50 003 work exits during follow-up, of which an average of 14% (range 2–32%) were health related. Low level education and low occupational grade were associated with increased risks of health-related exit in most studies. Low level education and occupational grade were also associated with an increased risk of any exit from work, although with less consistency across studies. CONCLUSIONS: Workers with low socioeconomic position have an increased risk of health-related exit from employment. Policies that extend working life may disadvantage such workers disproportionally, especially where institutional support for those exiting due to poor health is minimal.

Type: Article
Title: Occupational and educational inequalities in exit from employment at older ages: evidence from seven prospective cohorts
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2017-104619
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2017-104619
Language: English
Additional information: This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10046187
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