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Walking Speed, Cognitive Function, and Dementia Risk in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

Hackett, RA; Davies-Kershaw, H; Cadar, D; Orrell, M; Steptoe, A; (2018) Walking Speed, Cognitive Function, and Dementia Risk in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society , 66 (9) pp. 1670-1675. 10.1111/jgs.15312. Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationships between walking speed, cognitive function, and the interaction between changes in these measures and dementia risk. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. SETTING: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 60 and older (N=3,932). MEASUREMENTS: Walking speed and cognition were assessed at Waves 1 (2002-03) and 2 (2004-05) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. New dementia cases were assessed from Wave 3 (2006-07) to Wave 7 (2014-15). The associations were modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Participants with faster baseline walking speeds were at lower risk of developing dementia (hazard ratio (HR)=0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.22-0.60). Those with a greater decline in walking speed from Wave 1 to 2 were at greater risk of developing dementia (HR=1.23, 95% CI=1.03-1.47). Participants with better baseline cognition (HR=0.42, 95% CI=0.34-0.54) were at lower risk of developing dementia. Those with a greater decline in cognition from Wave 1 to 2 were at greater risk of developing dementia (HR=1.78, 95% CI=1.53-2.06). Change in walking speed and change in cognition did not have an interactive effect on dementia risk (HR=1.01, 95% CI=0.88-1.17). CONCLUSION: In this community-dwelling sample of English adults, those with slower walking speeds and a greater decline in speed over time were at greater risk of developing dementia independent of changes in cognition. Further research is required to understand the mechanisms that may drive these associations.

Type: Article
Title: Walking Speed, Cognitive Function, and Dementia Risk in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/jgs.15312
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15312
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: Cognition, dementia, gait speed
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Behavioural Science and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10045434
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