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Risk Factors for the Development of Cataract in Children with Uveitis

Blum-Hareuveni, T; Seguin-Greenstein, S; Kramer, M; Hareuveni, G; Sharon, Y; Friling, R; Sharief, L; ... Tomkins-Netzer, O; + view all (2017) Risk Factors for the Development of Cataract in Children with Uveitis. American Journal of Ophthalmology , 177 pp. 139-143. 10.1016/j.ajo.2017.02.023. Green open access

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Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine the risk factors for the development of cataract in children with uveitis of any etiology. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Two hundred forty-seven eyes of 140 children with uveitis were evaluated for the development of vision-affecting cataract. Demographic, clinical, and treatment data were collected between the time of presentation and the first instance cataract was recorded or findings at final follow-up. Main outcome measures included the prevalence of cataract and distribution by type of uveitis, incidence of new onset cataract time to cataract development, and risk factors for the development of cataract. RESULTS: The prevalence of cataract in our cohort was 44.2% and was highest among eyes with panuveitis (77.1%), chronic anterior uveitis (48.3%), and intermediate uveitis (48.0%). The overall incidence of newly diagnosed cataract was 0.09 per eye-year, with an estimated 69% to develop uveitis-related cataract with time. The main factors related with cataract development were the number of uveitis flares per year (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.06 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.15–4.35], P < .001), cystoid macular edema (HR = 2.87 [95% CI, 1.41–5.82], P = .004), posterior synechia at presentation (HR = 2.85 [95% CI, 1.53–5.30], P = .001), and use of local injections of corticosteroids (HR = 2.37 [95% CI, 1.18–4.75], P = .02). Treatments with systemic and topical corticosteroids were not significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that development of cataract is common among pediatric eyes with uveitis and is most strongly related to the extent of inflammation recurrences and ocular complications. We suggest that controlling the inflammation, even using higher doses of systemic and topical corticosteroids, is of importance in preventing ocular complications, such as cataract. Uveitis accounts for 10–15% of blindness in the developed world.1 Although pediatric uveitis is relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5–10% of all uveitis cases,2 it affects young patients, who in most cases are otherwise healthy. Vision loss results from ongoing inflammation that leads to ocular structural changes, such as cataract, corneal opacities, optic neuropathy, and retinal lesions. The most common causes of vision loss in children with uveitis are cataract, glaucoma, and chronic cystoid macular edema (CME).2, 3 In addition, any chronic visual obstruction can result in the development of amblyopia in younger children, with vision loss persisting after the inciting cause is treated.4 Such changes, together with the need for long-term treatment and continuous monitoring, can have a profound impact on their development, independence, and education. The prevalence of cataract in eyes with uveitis ranges from 20–64%,4, 5, 6, 7 and it is the most common complication of uveitis in children,8 occurring in approximately 35% of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis9 and increasing ≤80% in adults.10, 11 Cataract progression can be the result of persistent intraocular inflammation,12, 13 can be caused by surgery for uveitis complications (eg, trabeculectomies and repair of retinal detachments), or can be a consequence of uveitis treatment, particularly the use of local or systemic corticosteroids.14, 15, 16, 17 It results in reduced visual acuity and can have a detrimental effect on the development and academic achievements of these children.18 Studies have examined risk factors for the development of cataract among children with JIA-associated uveitis, identifying risk factors such as the presence of posterior synechiae (PS) at presentation,12, 19 the use of systemic corticosteroids,13 topical corticosteroid therapy exceeding 3 drops a day,12 or persistent, uncontrolled active inflammation,3 while early treatment with methotrexate delayed cataract progression.19 However, JIA is a unique cause of uveitis, often localized to the anterior chamber, with frequent intraocular structural changes and the early use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. It may not represent the same risks as other causes of pediatric uveitis. We examined disease- and treatment-related risk factors for cataract development in children with uveitis of any etiology. We investigated clinical and ophthalmologic characteristics, as well as treatment strategies in relation to the time interval between the first presentation with uveitis and cataract development.

Type: Article
Title: Risk Factors for the Development of Cataract in Children with Uveitis
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2017.02.023
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2017.02.023
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Ophthalmology, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Pediatric Uveitis, Dexamethasone Implants, Rheumatoid-Arthritis, Ocular Complications, Childhood, Surgery
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Ophthalmology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10043356
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