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Glia, sympathetic activity and cardiovascular disease

Marina, N; Teschemacher, AG; Kasparov, S; Gourine, AV; (2016) Glia, sympathetic activity and cardiovascular disease. Experimental Physiology , 101 (5) pp. 565-576. 10.1113/EP085713. Green open access

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Abstract

New Findings What is the topic of this review? In this review, we discuss recent findings that provide a novel insight into the mechanisms that link glial cell function with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, including systemic arterial hypertension and chronic heart failure. What advances does it highlight? We discuss how glial cells may influence central presympathetic circuits, leading to maladaptive and detrimental increases in sympathetic activity and contributing to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and may contribute to its progression. Vasomotor and cardiac sympathetic activities are generated by the neuronal circuits located in the hypothalamus and the brainstem. These neuronal networks receive multiple inputs from the periphery and other parts of the CNS and, at a local level, may be influenced by their non-neuronal neighbours, in particular glial cells. In this review, we discuss recent experimental evidence suggesting that astrocytes and microglial cells are able to modulate the activity of sympathoexcitatory neural networks in disparate physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We focus on the chemosensory properties of astrocytes residing in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata and discuss signalling mechanisms leading to glial activation during brain hypoxia and inflammation. Alterations in these mechanisms may lead to heightened activity of sympathoexcitatory CNS circuits and contribute to maladaptive and detrimental increases in sympathetic tone associated with systemic arterial hypertension and chronic heart failure.

Type: Article
Title: Glia, sympathetic activity and cardiovascular disease
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1113/EP085713
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP085713
Language: English
Additional information: © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Physiology, ROSTRAL VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA, SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE-RATS, CENTRAL SLEEP-APNEA, HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROSECRETORY NEURONS, CONGESTIVE-HEART-FAILURE, CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM, NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA, NEUROGENIC HYPERTENSION, BRAIN-STEM, MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Neuro, Physiology and Pharmacology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1499894
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